Anth 1 Introduction to Physical Anthropology Study Guide #2 Last Updated: November 3, 2006

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ANTH 1 Introduction to Physical Anthropology 
Study Guide #2

Last Updated: November 3, 2006
Understand the concept of Convergence and Homology and know some examples
Know the bones of the forelimb and some major movements:

  • Scapula, clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges

  • Movement between ulna + humerus: flexion/extension

  • Movement between radius + humerus: pronation/supination (rotation)

Know the following terminology:

  • Proximal/distal; Medial/lateral; Dorsal/ventral; Abduction/adduction

Know the following:

  • Subphylum Vertebrata

    • (External Fertilization): Class Pisces + Class Amphibia

    • (Internal Fertilization): Class Reptilia + Class Aves + Class Mammalia

Contrast & understand the functions of the following for Reptiles and Mammals re:

  • Body Temperature: Ectothermy (cold-blooded) vs endothermy (warm-blooded)

  • Reproduction: Amniotic Egg (Amnion, Allantois, Yolk Sac, Chorion); shell vs placenta/uterus

  • Parental Care: none vs lots (mammary glands)

  • Locomotion

    • limb placement: sprawled vs beneath body

    • axial skeleton movement: rotation vs flexion/extension

  • Growth: continuous growth vs discrete stages

  • Bones: endochondral vs intramembranous ossification

    • long bones have diaphysis + epiphyses

      • bone, cartilage, epiphyseal growth plates, ossification centers

      • epiphyses only ossify in mammals, not reptiles

    • cells involved in bone growth: osteoblasts (make bone); osteoclasts (destroy bone)

  • Dentition & Skull

    • homodonty vs heterodonty (structural & functional differentiation of mammalian teeth)

        • incisors (spatulate, nipping); canines (dagger-like, piercing); cheek-teeth (polycuspidate, chewing, grinding, slicing; mortar & pestle action; premolars & molars)

    • polyphyodonty vs diphyodonty: continuous replacement vs deciduous teeth replaced by permanent teeth

  • Muscles

    • no cheek bone vs cheek bone; temporalis for up/down movement; masseter for side-to-side movement

  • Lower jaw & ear bones

    • reptiles have many bones in jaw and one (stapes) in ear

    • mammals have one bone in jaw (dentary) and three (stapes, incus, malleus) in ear


Order Primates

  • Understand the difference (i.e., position of tarsiers) between the gradistic (i.e., Prosimii vs Anthropoidea) vs cladistic (i.e., Strepsirhini vs Haplorhini) subordinal classifications of primates

  • General Information: distribution: Tropics & Sub-tropics of Old and New Worlds

  • models for origin:

  • Be sure you understand the following list of features that characterize primates:

    • large brain; long gestation and childhood, play helps juveniles learn social behaviors; stereoscopic vision, overlapping visual fields; increased reliance on vision over smell; grasping thumbs and big toe; nails instead of claws (no deep stratum in nails as in claws; terminal phalanx is flat and wide in nails rather than tall and narrow as in claws); five fingers/toes with sensory pads; retain the clavicle

  • Be sure you understand the different limitations on male and female reproductive strategies

  • Be sure you understand the types of social groups in primates (solitary/noyau, polygynous [single-male, multi-male], monogamous, polyandrous) and understand the relationship between monomorphism/dimorphism and social systems

  • Suborder Strepsirhini (e.g., lemurs [aye-aye distinctive - in what ways?], galagos [VCL], lorises [slow, cautious quadrupeds])

    • primarily nocturnal & insectivorous

    • characterized by: grooming claw on second toe of foot; toothcomb (lower incisors and canines); tapetum lucidum & little color vision (primarily rods vs cones); use scent glands and urine washing to mark territories/location; strepsirhine condition (split lip, moist rhinarium, comma-shaped nostrils, Jacobsen's organ); mostly solitary social organization; postorbital bar

    • distribution: Africa & Asia (lorises & galagos) and Madagascar (lemurs)

  • Suborder Haplorhini

    • primarily diurnal & frugivorous or folivorous

    • characterized by: haplorhine condition (fused lip, dry rhinarium, simple nostrils, no Jacobsen’s Organ); no tapetum lucidum; color vision (rods & cones); postorbital closure

    • Tarsiers (their position changes in a gradistic vs cladistic classification)

      • characterized by large eyes, grooming claws on second and third toes, VCL locomotion, tiny, insectivorous

    • Anthropoidea

    • NWM (aka Platyrrhini)

      • characterized by: wide internaral septum; laterally directed nostrils; 3 premolars; ring-like tympanic bone in ear

      • know what distinguishes the:

        • marmosets and tamarins from the rest of the NWM

        • spider and howler monkeys from the rest of the NWM

    • Old World anthropoids (aka Catarrhini): OWM and apes

      • characterized by: narrow internaral septum; down- or forward directed nostrils; 2 premolars; tubular tympanic bone in ear

      • OWM

        • characterized by: ischial callosities (sitting pads); large number of lumbar vertebrae; dorsoventrally deep and mediolaterally narrow thorax (ribcage); shoulder points downwards; bilophodont dentition

        • Know the feeding adaptations and diets of the two OWM subfamilies: leaf monkeys and cheek pouched monkeys

      • Apes

        • Asian Apes

          • Gibbons: monogamous, territorial, duetting; ricochetal brachiators; aka lesser apes

          • Orangs: solitary; quadrumanus, cautious climbers; highly flexible limbs; aka great ape

        • African Apes

          • Gorillas: single male, silver back vs black back males; knuckle-walking; eats low quality foods such as bark, pith, leaves; three species in east and west Africa; aka great ape

          • Chimpanzees & bonobos: multi-male, patrilocal, females migrate out, male bonding; knuckle-walking, frugivores; aka great ape

            • common chimps, male bonding, hunting groups

            • bonobos are very promiscuous, matriarchal, egalitarian

          • Humans (fossil and living): variable social org.; bipedal; world-wide distribution;

            • share following postcranial traits with other apes related to suspensory behavior of ancestor: small number of lumbar vertebrae; no tail; dorsoventrally shallow and mediolaterally wide thorax; shoulders point sideways; able to completely circumduct arm at shoulder; ability to completely extend elbow; ability to rotate forearm and hand through 180 degrees

Physics of Stability:

  • relationship of height of center of gravity (CG) of body relative to width/size of base of support

    • High CG and small Base = unstable (e.g., ballerina, some floor lamps)

    • Low CG and large Base = stable (e.g., sumo wrestler, high-chair, some table lamps)

Biomechanical constraints in arboreal environment:

  • branches are narrow, so base of support for a primate is limited

    • can modify height of CG by: having shorter legs or flexing legs at elbow and knees

    • can modify width of base of support by moving legs/feet onto a nearby branch

Lack of biomechanical constraints in terrestrial environment:

  • ground is continuous, so base of support for a primate is unlimited

    • because there are no limits to the base of support, animals can afford to heighten CG;

      • Can heighten CG by lengthening legs

    • advantage of long legs is that speed is a function of:

      • rate of stride (how often legs move)

      • length of stride (distance covered by one leg)

Characteristics of all humans (living and fossil) compared to other apes:

  • The distinctive difference between humans and apes relates to locomotion: humans are bipedal, whereas apes are quadrupedal.

Modifications of skeleton for bipedal walking include:

    • vertebral column S-shaped with anterior lumbar curve

      • consequence of curvature is to bring body mass directly above knees and feet at midline

      • Vertebral bodies increase in size from top to bottom

    • hip modified to balance body over one supporting foot

      • pelvis curved anteroposteriorly rather than mediolaterally, so

        • gluteus maximus muscle functions as an extensor of the hip

        • gluteus medius and minimus are abductors of thigh and adducters of trunk, keeping the trunk from falling to the unsupported side; in apes these muscles are extensors of the hip

    • femur modified to bring knees to midline

      • thus humans have a "carrying angle" that does not equal 90 degrees, whereas in apes the carrying angle=90 degrees

    • large calf muscles compared to apes

    • foot modified to bear total body weight, rather than body weight being shared by four limbs as in apes

      • transverse arch, as seen in all primates, and

      • longitudinal arch, unique to bipedal hominids

      • very short toes (not needed for grasping)

      • big toe bound/adducted to other toes

  • Another distinctive difference relates to the loss of the honing triad

    • honing triad:

      • canines large and projecting;

      • upper canine honed against lower anterior premolar and lower canine; so worn on anterior and posterior sides

      • lower canine fits into diastema between upper canine and lateral incisor;

      • anterior premolar is unicuspid;

      • large canines in non-human primates used in male-male competition and in establishing dominance hierarchies

    • human canine complex:

      • canines look like incisors (incisiform)

      • canines occlude apically (at top), so worn only apically

      • no diastema

      • lower anterior premolar is bicuspid

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