Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals: Chapter 1: Pharmacology of Injectable Anesthetics



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Answers:

  1. True, page 166

  2. False, 12 hours, page 166

  3. F, all of the above, page 167

  4. True, page 167

  5. E, page 167

  6. E, page 170

  7. D, page 170

  8. A, page 170

  9. A, page 170

  10. False, does not alter…, Page 171

  11. C, page 171

  12. E, page 171

  13. E, page 172

  14. A, page 173; Males are more sensitive to pentobarbital. EMTU is known as Inactin.

  15. B, page 174

  16. True, page 177

  17. E, page 177

  18. D, page 179

  19. E, page 179-180, steroidal anesthetic also known as Saffan, repetitive boluses are contraindicated in guinea pigs only.

  20. E, page 181, Chloral hydrate causes adynamic ileus. Alpha chloralose preserves baroreceptors.

  21. True, page 180

  22. True, page 181

  23. B

  24. True, page 186

  25. False, 80 times more potent than morphine, page 187

  26. E, page 186-187

  27. True, page 190

  28. B, page 190



Chapter 10. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Rabbits.
Answers:

  1. Individual variation to anesthesia, enhanced sensitivity of the brain stem to respiratory depression, and difficulty in endotracheal intubation due to anatomy (long, narrow oral cavity making the epiglottis and larynx difficult to visualize and an auditus laryngicus that is narrow than the tracheal lumen). These characteristics are most pronounced when using pentobarbital or in rabbits with pneumonia.




  1. The rabbit has adapted to a hypercapnic state and may fail to respire spontaneously




  1. True




  1. 72 hours – allow for normalization of circulating catecholamines post shipment and habituate to handling.




  1. Xylazine




  1. Food withdrawal may not be necessary since rabbits are unable to vomit, the stomach does not empty even with 5 days of food withdrawal, and rabbits weighing less than 3 kg may develop metabolic acidosis and hypoglycemia with food withdrawal (rabbits less than 2 kg are not able to compensate for the acidosis). Food withdrawal may yield more consistent anesthesia, the reduced stomach size may add in respiration by not impinging on the diaphragm, and blood glucose levels are stable for up to 96 hours of food withdrawal.




  1. They are used to prevent vagal reflex induced bradycardia and reduce salivary and bronchial secretions




  1. Atropinesterase (AtrE) degrades atropine and other amino alcohol esterases (may be identical to cocainesterase)




  1. It can be detected brain and liver +/- serum with maximal activity after about 10 weeks of age. A rapid in vivo screening test: evaluation of the pupillary light reflex 45 minutes after receiving atropine.




  1. F Glycopyrrolate can be used or repeat bolusing with high concentrations of atropine may be effective.




  1. Acepromazine, chlorpromazine, and propiopromazine.




  1. Acepromazine causes peripheral vasodilation (through blocking of the adrenoreceptors) and sedation.




  1. Chlorpromazine reduces the amount of pentobarbital needed, as well as decreasing the amount of respiratory depression induced by pentobarbital.




  1. Diazepam, midazolam, and zolazepam




  1. C




  1. F. It has been reported to cause muscle rigidity +/- seizures




  1. Xylazine, medetomidine, detomidine. Can be reversed by yohimbine and atipamazole for medetomidine




  1. Xylazine produces sedation, muscle relaxation, and analgesia at high doses




  1. Xylazine




  1. Detomidine by unknown mechanism




  1. Amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, clindamycin, lincomycin




  1. Cholestyramine




  1. Give IM injections into the anterior or posterior aspect of the thigh in a manner to avoid the sciatic nerve or in the lumbar epaxial musculature




  1. Chlorpromazine and ketamine-xylazine




  1. Droperidol and acepromazine




  1. C




  1. advantages: ease of administration and lack of technical demands, predictability, and efficacy. Disadvantages: inability to control anesthetic depth and prolonged recovery.




  1. Pentobarbital, thiamylal, thiopental, ethylmalonylthiourea (EMTU), methohexital, methohexitone




  1. The dose for surgical anesthesia is close to the dose that induces apnea. The drug is also associated with respiratory depression (respiratory acidosis, hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and respiratory rate depression)




  1. Deflation of the lung (by chest compression) stimulates inspiration (feedback mechanism in which the reflex is mediated by the vagus and originates within the lung)




  1. Preservation or increase of the heartrate, decreased arterial blood pressure, peripheral vasodilation, decreased cardiac output, and depression of vasoconstriction in response to hemorrhage.




  1. pentobarbital, magnesium sulfate, and chloral hydrate




  1. F




  1. Ketamine and tiletamine




  1. depression of respiratory rate, hypoxemia, carbon dioxide retention, potential for metabolic alkalosis, decreases in heart rate, hypotension, and potential for apnea




  1. tiletamine and zolazepam. Tiletamine is nephrotoxic in rabbits and causes azotemia and urinary casts.




  1. An opiod and a tranquilizer.




  1. Inovar-Vet: fentanyl and droperidol. Hypnorm: fentanyl and fluanisone. Both exhibit respiratory depression and bradycardia




  1. Naloxone, doxapram, and mixed agonist/antagonist opioids can reverse the respiratory depression noted. The use of mixed agonist/antagonist opioids to reverse the neuroleptanalgesics is termed anesthesié analgesique sequentielle.




  1. Alphaxalone-alphadolone. It provides inconsistent analgesia




  1. Heart rate is increased but mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, blood gas tensions, and peripheral vasoconstriction reflexes and resistance are preserved.




  1. An alkyl phenyl in an oil-in-water emulsion (previously a Cremaphor El diluent was used). The changes seen vary depending on the dosage used. It causes a change in cardiac output and heart rate and decreases total peripheral resistance, it may decrease mean arterial pressures. It does not affect blood gas tensions.




  1. Advantages: long duration of action and excellent muscle relaxation. Disadvantages: carcinogenic, slow recovery, hypotension ( including venodilation at injection site), endocrine effects, potential for tissue slough if extravasated, and hemolysis and transient reduction in hematocrit.




  1. C




  1. Rees modified T-piece circuit, Bain circuit, Magill circuit, and circle circuit (see asevet.com/resources/index.htm for descriptions of these circuits).




  1. Advantages: cardiac safety, rapid induction and recovery, minimal hepatic transformation, and low viscerotoxicity. Disadvantages: cost, breath holding during induction, reduced respiratory anesthetic index, and hypotension.




  1. (The dose of an agent required to produce cardiac arrest) / (MAC)




  1. B




  1. Reduced cardiac output, reduced arterial blood pressure, reduced PaO2, reduced respiratory rate, elevated venous blood pressure, elevated plasma rennin, elevated PaCO2, elevated heart rate.




  1. Adminster 100% O2 for 10 minutes at the end of the procedure.




  1. F. Nitrous oxide increases the cerebral blood flow




  1. C




  1. surgical exposure and cannulation of the epidural space, surgical exposure and cannulation of the subarachnoid space, nonsurgical injection into the lumbar spinal interspace (incorrect placement may cause paralysis)




  1. Miosis, increased respiratory rate and depth, analgesia, reduced heart rate, decreased blood pressure. It is not sufficiently reliable or efficacious to be considered a replacement for analgesia or anesthesia.




  1. Drugs should be selected based upon their effect on adequate depth, relaxation of extraocular muscles, control of intraocular pressures, retinal fine structure, intraocular pressures, and volume of intraocular air.




  1. oculocardiac reflex




  1. 0.3% proparacaine




  1. C




  1. Reflexes, cardiopulmonary parameters, and body temperature




  1. A




  1. Decreases the MAC




  1. T




  1. Direct observation of chest wall or abdominal wall movement, use of respiratory monitors adapted to the endotracheal tube, esophageal stethoscopes, pediatric pneumotachometers, chest wall plethysmography, and CSF movement.




  1. Mucous membrane color, blood gas analysis, end-tidal carbon dioxide assessment, pulse oximetry




  1. mucous membrane color, capillary refill time, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and pulse rate and character




  1. esophageal stethoscope, EKG, direct auscultation, palpation of apex beat through the chest wall




  1. Arterial cannulation and indirect methods




  1. Palpation of the saphenous artery/carotid artery/femoral artery, visual inspection of surgically exposed vascular beds, or analysis of pressure pulse waveforms available with direct pressure monitoring instruments




  1. relatively small size, high surface area/volume ratio, and drug induced hypothermia




  1. 5% SQ dextrose, 50% oral dextrose, parenteral nutritional support, offering palatable feed, administration of high calorie nutritional supplements, and oral administration of probiotics or fecal or cecal slurry from health rabbits




  1. Reduced food and water consumption (with resulting weight loss), failure to groom (with resulting unkempt appearance), reduced activity, guarding behavior (tensing of muscles, escape reaction)




  1. thermal stimuli applied to the muzzle or ear or skin, electrical stimulation of the ears or tooth pulp, or pressure on the hindlimbs. According to this reference, inflamed paw pressure test used in rodents has not been developed in the rabbit.




  1. C




  1. may produce hypertension and hyperglycemia in conscious rabbits (via increased sympathetic activity and histamine release).




  1. may cause convulsions




  1. D



Chapter 11: Anesthesia and Analgesia of Nonhuman Primates
Answers:

  1. T

  2. Nonhuman primates with induced hypertension may be less tolerant to repeated doses of ketamine and would be better managed with volatile anesthetics

  3. Callitrichidae (marmosets and tamarins)

  4. T

  5. F

  6. atipamezole

  7. diazepam

  8. T

  9. propofol

  10. Fentanyl supplementation reduces the dose of inhalant anesthetics and enhances intraoperative analgesia

  11. EKG Lead II

  12. Lidocaine

  13. Swan-Ganz catheter

  14. T

  15. phenylephrine

  16. F, hypotension and tachycardia

  17. The goal of postoperative analgesia is to decrease an animal’s experience of a noxious stimuli, and to maintain normal physiological and cardiovascular stability.

  18. Oxymorphone

  19. buprenorphine

  20. Naloxone



Chapter 12: Anesthesia and Analgesia in Dogs, Cats Ferrets
Answers

1. Xylazine and medetomidine

2. tranquilizers, sedative or other CNS depressants

3. Chemical restraint, minor procedures, 45 minutes.

4. Sedative and analgesic, about 60 minutes

5. 3mg


6. Heavy sedation and moderate analgesia, 30 minutes.

7. tranquilization




8. Answers to Fill in the chart on chemical restraints

Drug

Dog

Cat

CNS Effect

Duration

Use

Acetylpromazine

X

X

tranquilizer

20-30 minutes

calming

Xylazine

X




Sedation/alpha adrenergic agonist

1 hour

Sedation, analgesia

Medetomidine

X




Sedation/alpha adrenergic agonist

1 hour

Sedation, analgesia

Ketamine




X

anesthetic

45 minutes

Restraint, anesthetic

Fentanyl-doperidol

X




Heavy sedation, moderate analgesic

30 minutes

Heavy sedation, moderate analgesic

9.Mask, chamber, technical skill

10. Halothane, isofluorane

11. High solubility

12. rebreathing of dead-space gases

13. expose personnel to anesthetic gases and dilute concentration of anesthesia

14. uneasy induction and recovery.

15. Preanesthetics

16. catecholamine release.

17. spasms of the larynx and thoracic muscles

18. scratching, biting, vocalization.

19. Lightly anesthetized.

20. Extraneous stimuli

21. Hearing, loud abrupt noises.

22. gradual increase the concentration of the anesthetic gases or the immediate administration of high partial pressure of anesthesia.

23. gradual increase the concentration of the anesthetic gases

24. Airway control

25. Cats and ferrets because the pharyngeal anatomy is similar to that of young children.

26. laryngospasm and excessive vagal response.

27. Lidocaine, benzocaine

28. Sternal recumbancy, regurgitation and aspiration.

29. excessive cuff pressure

30. endotracheal intubation, visceral transection or manipulation, ocular procedures, manipulation of the carotid sheath or vagal nerve.

31. opioids, alpha –2-agonists

32. Anticholinergic medications

33. Atropine, glycopyrrolate

34. False, the reverse statement is true.

35. tachyarrythmias and increase in dead space ventilation due to bronchiodilation.

36. Hypotension and prolonged sedation, acepromazine

37. Diazepam (Valium 0.2-0.4mg/kg IV, IM)

38. Midazolam (Versed 0.2-0.4mg/kg IV, IM)

39. Xylazine

40. Meditomicdine

41 mild to marked vagal bradycardia and decreased cardiac output

42. atropine/anticholinergics; xylazine

Anesthesia Chapter 13: Sheep and Goats
Answers

 


  1. Their heart size to body weight ratio and other thoracic cardiovascular structures are analogous in size to those structures in humans.

  2. Q-fever, Contagious Ecthyma, Tuberculosis, Ringworm

  3. Coxiella burnetti

  4. parapox

  5. B. abortus, B. melitensis

  6. True – movement of ruminants between states requires examination by an accredited veterinarian as well as a signed health certificate

  7. C. perfrigens type C and D, C. tetani, C. haemolyticum, C. novyi, C. chauvoei, C. septicum.

  8. lateral, dorsal

  9. 24, 48 hours

  10. passage of a stomach tube into the rumen, percutaneous insertion of a large bore (16 g) needle

  11. Nitrous oxide gas should not be used in ruminants because the difference in solubility between nitrogen and nitrous oxide results in increased volume and pressure in closed gas cavities.

  12. Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV)

  13. Active regurgitation – explosive discharge of rumen contents observed during light anesthesia and Passive regurgitation – a slow, continual stream of rumenal fluid draining from the mouth seen under deeper levels of anesthesia

  14. a) use of a cuffed endotracheal tube, b) passage of a stomach tube into the rumen, c) positioning of the head below the body.

  15. Atropine (very short acting, may increase viscosity of saliva) and Glycopyrrolate (longer duration but also longer onset of action)

  16. poor positioning, poor padding, hypoperfusion

  17. Jugular, cephalic, saphenous, auricular

  18. Auricular artery – located rostral to the vein on the abaural surface of the ear.

  19. surgical cut-down. (percutaneous access is difficult in ruminants)

  20. rapid, short (60 – 90 minutes)

  21. slow, long (4 – 6 hours)

  22. muscle twitching, seizures, depression, hypoventilation, tachycardia, cardiovascular collapse

  23. Supportive therapy – ventilation, IV fluid administration and vasopressor administration

  24. corneal nerve; corneal and infratrochlear nerves

  25. epidural; subarachnoid

  26. paresis or paralysis

  27. True

  28. 1)  Location – epidural injections require a 1/3 increase in drug dose compared to spinal injections 2) mass (volume x concentration) of drug – increased mass = increased extent of anesthesia 3) speed of administration – increasing speed or force increases extent of anesthesia 4) size of epidural space – animals with longer backs require more drugs than those with shorter backs to achieve the same extent of anesthesia 5) volume of blood and lymphatics in epidural space – pregnancy increases both so the dose can be reduced by 1/3  6) animal position – gravity results in downward migration of anesthetics.

  29. phenothiazine

  30. False, acepromazine does not provide analgesia when used alone but can potentiate analgesia caused by other agents.

  31. vasodilation

  32. xylazine, detomidine, medetomidine, clonidine, romifidine

  33. False – xylazine and other alpha 2 adrenergic agonists provide dose dependent sedation AND analgesia

  34. bradycardia, second degree A-V block, ventricular dysrhythymia, hypotension and decreased cardiac output

  35. True

  36. Benzodiazepines

  37. Flumazenil

  38. True

  39. True

  40. trichloroethanol, the liver

  41. False, chloral hydrate is very irritating if administered perivascularly

  42. True

  43. subcutaneous (SC)

  44. hepatic microsomal oxidative metabolism

  45. rapid, short, rapid

  46. False, recovery is via redistribution to muscle and abdominal viscera

  47. True.  Thiopental should not be administered SC, IM or IP

  48. Propofol

  49. Apnea and hypotension

  50. True

  51. Ketamine’s short duration of action is due to it’s large volume of distribution and rapid metabolism.

  52. increases

  53. Atipamezole

  54. True

  55. muscle relaxant

  56. 1) direct visualization using a laryngoscope with a long blade 2) blind intubation (sheep and goats only) 3) digital palpation (adult cattle, esp.) 4) use of guides (passage of a smaller stiff tube first, followed by passage of a larger endotracheal tube that is fed over the small tube)

  57. False, inhalant anesthetics (isoflurane and halothane) result in decreased arterial pressure, cardiac output and ventilation.

  58. Guaifenesin, Ketamine and Xylazine

  59. 1) movement or jaw chewing in response to stimulus 2) eye position and palpebral muscle tone 3) presence/absence of active or passive regurgitation

  60. 60 mm Hg

  61. Capnography (measurement of end-expired CO2) or intermittent monitoring of arterial blood gas

  62. 1)  after fasting more than 48 hours 2) in ill animals 3) during lengthy procedures.

  63. Dopamine, dobutamine and ephedrine

  64. At feeding time.

  65. altered feeding pattern, decreased feed intake, separation from the herd, abnormal gait or position

  66. True – cortisol, beta-endorphin and catecholamine levels are elevated in response to pain, stress, and exercise and are therefore nonspecific.

  67. 1) reduction in the amount of analgesia used 2) decreased number of days of analgesia use and 3) hastened postoperative recovery.

  68. False:  Fentanyl is a pure mu agonist.

  69. flunixin, phenylbutazone, dipyrone, and aspirin

  70. cyclooxygenase

  71. 1) local/regional analgesia 2) spinal administration of analgesia and 3) electroanesthesia.



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