Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals: Chapter 1: Pharmacology of Injectable Anesthetics

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Chapter 14.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Swine


  1. True or False. Domestic pigs are classified as Sus scrofa domestica, while miniature pigs are classified as Sus scrofa exotica.

  1. What factors should be considered when selecting anesthetic agents and their method of delivery?

  2. What sites are acceptable for giving large volume IM injections?

  3. Where should small volume IM injections be given?

  4. Why is it difficult to give large volumes of SC fluid in the pig?

  5. What is the most common site for IV injections?

  6. What vein is located on the cranial aspect of the foreleg between the elbow joint and the carpus?

  7. This vein will collapse and become inaccessible if blood flow through it is occluded and the skin is rotated laterally (technique commonly used in the dog). What vessel is it?

  8. What is the best way to restrain a pig?

  9. What anatomical structure can make endotracheal intubation difficult in the pig?

  10. What size endotracheal tube should be used for swine over 50 kg of body weight?

  11. What is the primary advantage of using nitrous oxide in swine?

  12. In swine, what is the halothane MAC?

  13. True or False. Halothane is a myocardial depressant.

  14. In adult swine what happens to the heart rate when given halothane?

  15. In neonatal swine what effect does halothane have on the heart rate?

  16. What is the effect of halothane on coronary vascular resistance?

  17. Isoflurane has a (lower, higher) blood gas solubility than halothane.

  18. In swine, which inhalation agent has the greatest margin of cardiovascular safety?

  19. What hemodynamic changes are seen in newborn swine given isoflurane?

  20. Unlike (enflurane, halothane) isoflurane does not produce seizure activity in swine

  21. Which inhalation agent is preferred in liver surgery in swine?

  22. True or False. Enflurane is a less potent myocardial depressant than isoflurane.

  23. Characterize the liver after prolonged anesthesia with desflurane.

  24. What is used as an index of desflurane metabolism?

  25. What class of tranquilizers produces an alpha-adrenergic blockade at higher doses?

  26. What is the most commonly used phenothiazine derivative used in swine?

  27. What class of tranquilizers is associated with hypothermia with prolonged use in the swine?

  28. Which benzodiazepine tranquilizers are commonly used in swine?

  29. True or False. Droperidol, fluanisone, and azaperone are anticholinergics that are always used in combination with other drugs.

  30. Which alpha-adrenergic agonist agents are used in swine?

  31. Give the class of drugs used to dry oral secretions of the oral cavity and to provide a vasolytic effect during endotracheal intubation. What two drugs in this are used in swine?

  32. What are the most commonly used injectable anesthetic agents in swine? Name a drug in this class. When performing major surgery, can this drug be used as a sole agent if given as an IV infusion? Why or why not?

  33. In regards to barbiturate use in swine, why is it recommended that a dilute solution be used for IV bolus injections?

  34. True or False. Thiamylal and thiopental are intermediate acting barbiturates.

  35. What are the advantages to using high-dose opioid anesthetic techniques in swine?

  36. What agents are most commonly used for opioid infusion techniques?

  37. What agent is used to reverse opioids?

  38. What is regional anesthesia?

  39. Alphaxalone and alphadolone are _____. Their use with ______ is contraindicated.

  40. What is the focus of intraoperative monitoring?

  41. List two drugs that can be used to prevent cardiac arrhythmias secondary to manipulation of the heart during cardiac surgery.

  42. ________ is more effective than drugs in the event of ventricular fibrillation or cardiac asystole.

  43. What is the normal heart rate in the pig?

  44. List the indicators of a surgical plane of anesthesia for pigs.

  45. Which vessels are more accessible for direct blood pressure monitoring.

  46. Why are pigs more prone to hypothermia?

  47. True or False. Malignant hyperthermia is a genetic disease seen mainly in miniature pigs induced by volatile inhalation anesthetics

  48. What is the first cardinal sign of malignant hyperthermia?

  49. What drugs are considered triggers for malignant hyperthermia?

  50. What is the drug of choice for the treatment and prevention of malignant hyperthermia?

  51. Define cardiopulmonary bypass.

  52. The sow has a _____ ________ type of placentation and most anesthetics (can, can’t) cross the placental barrier.

Chapter 15 Anesthesia and Analgesia in Nontraditional laboratory Animal Species




  1. To what order do the armadillos belong?

  1. Large rodents may be fasted for 24 hours prior to surgery without fear of hypoglycemia. T/F

  1. An anesthetic regimen of tiletamine-zolazepam and sodium pentobarbital constant rate infusion produces what response in auditory evoked potentials in the chinchilla?

    1. None

    2. Upward

    3. Downward

  1. Richardson’s ground squirrels are adequately anesthetized for surgery by what of the following anesthetics?

    1. Ketamine 86 mg/kg

    2. Fentanyl 52 ug/kg – droperidol 2.5 mg/kg

    3. Sodium pentobarbital 50 mg/kg

    4. Ketamine 86 mg/kg xylazine 11 mg/kg

  1. Alpha chloralose can be administered IP for survival surgeries. T/F

  1. Barbituates, except sodium pentobarbital, are all alkaline and irritating when given other than intravenously. T/F

  1. Marsupials such as the North American opossum Didephis virginiana are utilitzed in studies of:

    1. Sphincter activity

    2. Pancreatitis

    3. Fetal development

    4. All of the above

  1. Alpha chloralose is not useful for anesthetizing marsupials for studies on sympathetic nerve activity because it interferes with sympathetic synaptic transmission.

  1. Armadillos are used for studies on leprosy. T/F

  1. The anesthetic of choice in shrews is:

    1. halothane

    2. fenanyl droperidol

    3. isofluorane

    4. hypothermia

  1. What drug(s) cause(s) hemodilution in bats?

    1. Pentobarbital

    2. Alpha chloralose

    3. Both


  1. Primary bronchi of birds connect to cranial or caudal pulmonary air sacs?

  1. Birds have complete tracheal rings, so cuffed ET tubes should be used. T/F

  1. Fluid maintenance levels for a bird are:

    1. 25 ml/kg/day

    2. 50 ml/kg/day

    3. 100 ml/kg/day

    4. 75 ml/kg/day

  1. Isoflurane is the anesthetic of choice in birds, though it lowers the threshold for electrical fibrillation in chickens. T/F

  1. Chicken embryos can be anesthetized by which of the following methods:

    1. Drill a hole in the shell, inject ketamine

    2. Drill a hole in the shell, pass 1% halothane over it

    3. Hypothermia

    4. Drill a hole in the shell, inject ketamine/xylazine

  1. K opiod receptors in chickens are the predominant type, so butorphanol may be a more effective analgesic than morphine.

  1. Isofluorane can cause hypoventilation in ducks. T/F

  1. 2% lidocaine is not associated with anesthetic death in ducks. T/F

  1. Yohimbine is effective in reversing the effects of ketamine xylazine in

    1. All of the following

    2. Turkey vultures

    3. Zebra finches

    4. Budgerigars

  1. Why should you not recover a reptile from anesthesia at a significantly warmer temperature than it was anesthetized at?

  1. Lizards and snakes have complete tracheal rings, and turtles and crocodilians have incomplete ones. T/F

  1. What reptiles have a complex lung similar to mammals?

    1. Crocodilians

    2. Chelonian

    3. Squamata

  1. Boids and colubrids have the respiratory portion of the lung caudal to the heart, cranial to the liver, and viperids and elapids have a respiratory portion of the lung cranial to the heart. T/F

  1. Dorsal recumbency in turtles can lead to visceral compression of the lung and decreased tidal volume, which can be alleviated via assisted ventilation at 4-6 bpm. T/F

  1. What reflex can be reliably lost at a surgical plane of anesthesia in snakes?

  1. Is acepromazine effective in emydids, who lack benzodiazepine receptors?

  1. In what species are sensory nerve functions abolished during hypothermia?

    1. Leopard frogs

    2. Trout

    3. Caiman

    4. Cats

  1. Is hypothermia an appropriate anesthetic regimen for poikilotherms?

  1. What anesthetic regimen is preferred in snakes and lizards: inhalant or injectable?

  1. What total cumulative dose of ketamine is lethal in venomous snakes?

  1. What injectable drug provides smooth induction, minimal cumulative effect and reliable anesthesia in snakes?

  1. What reptiles are most susceptible to inhalation anesthetic overdose?

    1. Snakes

    2. Crocodilians

    3. Turtles

    4. Tortoises

    5. Lizards

  1. What species of turtles are not effectively anesthetized with induction chambers?

    1. Sliders

    2. Snappers

    3. Box turtles

    4. All of the above

    5. None of the above

  1. Tiletamine zolazepam provides surgical anesthesia in turtles. T/F

  1. Crocodilians are routinely safely anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. T/F

  1. Analgesics effective in reptiles include:

    1. Morphine

    2. Buprenorphine

    3. Flunixin

    4. Meperidine

    5. Oxymorphone

    6. Pentazocine

    7. All of the above

    8. A, B, C, F

  1. Immersion methods are effective in anesthesia of amphibians. T/F

  1. Amphibian mucous skin secretions must be removed prior to surgery. T/F

  1. Lungless salamanders breath through the skin, and are known as:

    1. Plethodontids

    2. Axolotls

    3. Tiger salamanders

  1. The anesthetic of choice for amphibians is MS222. T/F

  1. MS222 must be buffered if acidic, or induction time is prolonged as the solution is ionized and non absorbable. Which of the following solutions is appropriate?

    1. Sodium bicarbonate

    2. Dibasic sodium phosphate

    3. Sodium phosphate

    4. All of the above

    5. A and B

  1. What other methods are appropriate for surgical anesthesia in amphibians?

    1. Isoflurane bubbled through water

    2. Halothane bubbled through water

    3. Benzocaine/ethanol in water

    4. Ketamine

    5. A, B only

    6. A,B,D

    7. A,B,C

  1. What method is used to determine nociceptive threshold in frogs?

  1. Which is the most potent opiod in the leopard frog?

    1. Morphine

    2. Codeine

    3. Fentanyl

    4. Methadone

  1. What level of anesthesia is appropriate for sampling skin and blood?

    1. Stage 1, plane 2

    2. Stage 2, plane 2

    3. Stage 3, plane 2

  1. Why are IM injections into expaxial musculature not recommended in the fish?

  1. What is MS222 a derivative of?

  1. What physiologic effects have been noted with MS222 anesthesia?

    1. Olfactory lesions in catfish

    2. Memory behavior in juvenile salmon

    3. Decreased liver glycogen

    4. Peroxide metabolism in fresh and saltwater fish

    5. None

    6. All

  1. What is the most commonly used injectable anesthetic in fish?

  1. Which family of fishes have been found to produce opiate like hormones?

  1. What carries oxygen in the hemolymph of intevertebrates?

  1. What inhalant has been used to anesthetize spiders?

  1. Flynap (triethylamine) is fatal to mosquitoes. T/F

  1. MgCL2 and succinylcholine are acceptable anesthetics for surgical procedures in invertebrates. T/F

  1. Opiod receptors have been identified in which of the following species of invertebrate animal:

    1. Snail

    2. Leech

    3. Slug

    4. Crab

    5. Cockroach

    6. Crickets

    7. None

    8. All

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