Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals: Chapter 1: Pharmacology of Injectable Anesthetics



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Chapter 12: Anesthesia and Analgesia in Dogs, Cats Ferrets

Chemical Restraint


1. Name two alpha-2-adrenergic agonist used in dogs.


2. Minor procedures require _________.
3. Ketamine (10-20mg/kg IM) is used in cats for _______, _______lasting _____minutes.
4. Xylazine (2.2 mg/kg IM) and medetomidine (0.03mg/kg IM) have similar ______________ and ____________ effects lasting _________minutes.
5. The maximum dose of acetylpromazine used to tranquilize dogs and cats is _____________.
6. Innovar-Vet (fentanyl-doperidol 0.05ml/kg IM) in dogs causes _________ and _______ lasting about ______minutes.
7. Acetylpromazine (0.05-0.1mg/kg IV, SC, IM) causes ___________ in dogs and cats.


8. Fill in the chart on chemical restraints

Drug

Dog

Cat

CNS Effect

Duration

Use




X

X

tranquilizer

__ minutes




Xylazine







__________ and ___________

__ minutes

Sedation, analgesia




X




Sedation/alpha adrenergic agonist

1 hour

_______, ________







X

anesthetic

45 minutes

Restraint, anesthesia

Fentanyl-doperidol







____________ and _____________

__ minutes

________ and _______


















Inhalants

9. Induction of anesthesia using ______ or ______ requires good judgment, ______ and finesse.
10. _____ and ______ are two volatile anesthetics used in mask and chamber induction.
11. Methoxyfluorane is not suitable for mask and chamber induction due to ________ resulting in prolonged transition from awake to asleep and delirium.
12. Masks should fit well enough to minimize ________ and leakage of anesthetic gases.
13. Ill fitting masks will _______ and _________.
14. Struggling in animals cause _________.
15. _______ may be needed for restraint prior to mask induction.
16. Excitation during induction can lead to arrhythmias due to _______.
17. Ventilatory insufficiency results from __________.
18. Induction delirium may be accompanied by __________.
19. _______ animals can be easily and dangerously excited.
20. ________ ______ should be minimized during induction.
21. ________ is the last sensation to succumb to anesthetic depression, therefore, minimize _______________.
22. Two basic approaches to mask induction are 1. _________ or 2. _________
23. Which of the two approaches to mask induction is preferred?
Intubation
24. _______ is a fundamental of safe anesthetic management.
25. What species are used in training personnel in pediatric intubation techniques and why?
26. Adequate anesthetic depth decreases the risk of _______ and _______.
27. _____ can be used to minimize laryngospasms in cats, but _____ causes methemoglobinemia and should be avoided.
28. When intubating dogs and cats, the ______ position reduces the risk of _________ and _________
29. _______ can cause ischemia, necrosis or rupture of the trachea.

Preanesthetics


30. Name 5 procedures that increase the vagal parasympathetic nervous system tone.
31. Name two types of vagotonic drugs that increase vagal tone.
32. ______ prevent bradycardia and decrease salivary and respiratory secretions.
33. Two common anticholinergic drugs used in dogs and cats are_________.
34. T/F – Glycopyrrolate raises heart rate more than atropine, while atropine provides more

control over salivation and has a longer duration of action.


35. Two risks associated with anticholinergic drugs are ________ and _________
36. ______ and ______ are frequent undesirable effects of _______, the most popular preanesthetic tranquilizer.
37. _______ provides more rapid recovery and is less hypotensive than acepromazine
38. ___________, a water-soluble benzodiazipine, is better absorbed than valium and less painful on IM injection.
39. ________ is a sedative and short acting analgesic.
40. ________ is an almost pure sedative
41. Alpha-2-adrenergic agonist side effects are ________ and _______ with rare occurrence of second degree heart block
42. Pretreatment with _______ prevents bradycardia caused by ______ but does not prevent decreased cardiac output.


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