|Picture 10. Generalized Turing machine: an informational network (Вход-выход is the Russian for input-output)
In contrast, the sign system is based, first, on the ‘binding’ of each of its elements to a particular ‘piece of reality’, which is called the meaning or content of the element. We might recall the examples of such relationship, i.e. of the content of the sign:
Second, the sign system is based on certain grammatical rules that determine how characters can interact with each other.
Conventionally, all this can be represented as follows:
Picture 11. Generalized Turing machine: a sign system