Anatomy & Physiology 34a lecture Chapter 7 The Skeletal System: Axial Skeleton



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Anatomy & Physiology 34A Lecture

Chapter 7 - The Skeletal System: Axial Skeleton

  1. Overview

  1. Introduction to the axial skeleton

  2. Skull

  3. Vertebral Column

  4. Thoracic Cage

  5. Disorders

  1. The ________ Skeleton forms the axis of the body & consists of 80 major bones in the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage (bony thorax)

  2. The ______ - composed of 22 bones in the 2 major sets of bones: the cranium and the facial bones

  1. __________ - encloses and protects the brain; divided into 2 major areas: the ___________ forming the superior, lateral, and posterior walls of the skull, and the cranial ______, forming the skull base.

  1. The cranium has several cavities & fossae

  1. Cranial cavity is the largest, surrounds the ________

  2. Cranial __________ in the floor of the cranial cavity

1) ____________ fossa – formed by the lesser wings of the sphenoid, frontal, and ethmoid, bones; houses frontal lobes

2) ___________ fossa – formed by the greater wings of sphenoid and temporal bone; houses temporal lobes

3) ___________ fossa – formed by the occipital bone; houses cerebellum


  1. ________ cavity is formed by both cranial and facial bones and is separated into two chambers by a nasal __________

  2. Paranasal ___________ (4) are located within the bones surrounding the nasal area (______ = frontal, ethmoidal maxillary, and sphenoidal)

  3. Middle & inner _____ cavities within the temporal bone, house the organs of hearing and balance

  4. __________ (2) for the eyeballs are formed by facial and cranial bones

  1. ____________ (soft spots) are soft, membranous spots between the incompletely formed cranial bones of a fetus or embryo; allow skull compression and expansion, and include the ______:

a. __________ – in temple area where frontal, parietal, and sphenoid bones join

b. _________ – at medial junction of parietal & occipital bones

c. __________ – at medial junction of frontal and parietal bones

d. __________ – at posterior junction of occipital, parietal, and temporal bones

e. Ossification of these spots is not complete until around __-__ months old

  1. ____________ - interlocking immovable joints that join all but one of the bones of the cranium (the mandible is attached by a moveable joint). Major cranial sutures include:

  1. ____________ S. - joins frontal and parietal bones

  2. ____________ S. - joins parietal bones

  3. ______________ S. - joins occipital and parietal bones

  4. ____________ S. - joins parietal and temporal bones

  1. Eight large, flat bones construct the __________

  1. ___________ (forehead) bone - anterior cranium; includes roof of eye orbit and frontal sinuses

  2. ___________ bones (2) - superior, lateral bones of cranium; bordered by all 4 cranial sutures

  3. ___________ bones (2) - inferior to parietal bones; parts are:

1) ___________ (flat) portion and _________ (rock) portion

2) Processes - zygomatic, styloid, __________

3) Fossa – ____________

4) Foramina – jugular, carotid canal, stylomastoid, ________

5) _________ – external auditory and internal auditory


  1. _________ bone - posterior, inferior bone of cranium; parts:

1) Processes – occipital ___________, external occipital proturberance

2) Foramina – foramen __________, hypoglossal canals



  1. __________ bone - bat-shaped bone forming anterior plateau of middle cranial fossa; parts:

1) Greater & lesser _________

2) ______ ___________ (seat of the pituitary gland) includes anterior & posterior clinoid processes



3) Foramina – __________, rotundum, ovale, spinosum

  1. _____________ bone - anterior to sphenoid

  1. _________ ________ with olfactory foramina and crista galli found in medial, anterior cranial cavity

  2. Perpendicular plate forms upper nasal ___________

  3. Superior & middle nasal ________ found in nasal cavity

  1. __________ bones - 12 paired bones plus one mandible and vomer

  1. _____________ - lower jaw; only movable bone of skull; parts:

a. _____--_-, ramus, angle, notch

b. Processes coronoid, condyle, __________

c. Foramina – ___________, mandibular

  1. ________________ (2) - upper jaw; parts:

a. Processes – alveolar, ____________ (anterior hard palate)

b. Infraorbital __________

  1. _____________ (2) - posterior hard palate

  2. _______________ (2) - cheek bones; art. with temporal bone

  3. _____________ (2) - has lacrimal fossa, beneath tear ducts

  4. _________ (2) - bridge of nose

  5. __________ - inferior part of nasal septum in median plane of nasal cavity

  6. Inferior Nasal __________ (turbinates) - lateral wall of nasal cavity

C. Auditory _______ – malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup)

D. _________ bone - not part of skull but lies inferior to mandible

  1. ___________ (spinal) Column - extends from skull to pelvis; forms body’s major axial support; surrounds and protects spinal ______

  1. ____________ vertebrae - __ neck vertebrae (C1-C7)

  1. ________ - has lateral processes with facets that receive the occipital condyles of the skull; joint allows head to ____

  2. ________ - inferior to atlas; has a large process called a _____ that allows the skull to pivot (indicating “___”)

  3. Vertebra __________ – 7th cervical with long spinous process

  4. Transverse processes contain ______________ through which vertebral arteries pass to brain.

  1. ____________ Vertebrae - ___ vertebrae (T1-T12) posterior to rib cage; have ________ for rib tubercles on transverse processes.

  2. ________ Vertebrae - 5 vertebrae (L1-L5) with large, block-like bodies and short, thick spinous processes extending directly backward.

  3. ________ - 5 fused vertebrae; articulates with L5 superiorly, with ilium laterally, and connects to coccyx inferiorly. Parts:

1. Body, ____

2. Articular - Superior articular process, ____________ surface

3. Processes – promontory, median _______

4. Foramina – sacral _______, sacral foramina

  1. Coccyx (__________) - 3-5 fused bones.

  2. Typical vertebrae have the following features:

  1. _______ - central rounded portion

  2. Vertebral ____ - junction of all posterior projections; includes the _______ (bet. spinous & transverse processes) and _______ (attachment of arch to body)

  3. Vertebral ________ - large hole through which the spinal cord passes

  4. _____________ processes - two lateral projections from the vertebral arch

  5. ____________ process - single medial, posterior projection from the vertebral arch

  6. Superior & Inferior articular ______________ - paired projections lateral to the vertebral foramen that enable articulation with adjacent vertebrae

  7. _____________ foramina - notches on the superior & inferior surfaces of the pedicels that allow spinal nerves to exit the spinal cord

  1. Vertebrae are separated by intervertebral discs of ______ cartilage that are composed of two regions:

  1. Nucleus ___________ - a central gelatinous area that behaves like a fluid and is surrounded by the

  2. Annulus __________ - an outer ring of collagenous fibers that stabilizes the disc

  3. In a ___________ _______, the nucleus pulposa herniates through the annulus and compresses adjacent nerves

  1. Thoracic (rib) _______ - composed of sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae; encloses and protects heart & lungs

  1. ___________ (breast bone) - 3 fused flat bones

  1. ______________ - articulates with clavicles (collarbone) at the clavicular notches and ribs 1 & 2; has medial jugular notch

  2. ______ - forms majority of sternum; joins manubrium at sternal angle,costal facets articulate directly or indirectly with ribs 2-10

  3. ____________ process - inferior end of sternum; at level of 5th intercostal space; no ribs, but some abdominal muscles attach

  1. Ribs - ___ prs. of ribs form the thoracic cage:

  1. ________ (vertebrosternal) ribs - 1st __ pr. ribs, all increasing in length; attach directly to sternum via their costal cartilage

  2. ________ (vertebrochondral) ribs - next __ pr. Ribs; attach indirectly via hyaline cartilage to sternum

  3. __________ (vertebral) ribs – 2 pr. have no sternal attachment

  4. _____________ spaces are found between the ribs

  5. A typical ____ (#3-9) has the following features:

  1. Head & ____________ articulate with thoracic vertebra

  2. _______ - distal to the head

  3. Body (______) - long, straight part of the rib, curves at angle

VI. Spinal Curvatures & Disorders of the Axial Skeleton

  1. ________ spinal curves include primary and secondary curvatures

1. ____________ curvatures

a. Present at _________

b. Found in the __________ and _________ regions

2. _____________ curvatures

a. Develop ________ birth

b. _________ curve develops as baby begins to lift his/her head

c.__________ curve occurs when baby begins to stand and walk

  1. _______________ spinal curvatures include:

  1. ___________ - lateral curvature of more than 10, usually in the thoracic region; may result from legs of unequal length

  2. ____________ (humpback) - dorsal curvature of the thoracic region; most common in older women due to osteoporosis

  3. ____________ (swayback) - accentuated lumbar curvature; may result from osteomalacia or overweight

  1. ________________ - incomplete formation of the vertebral arches surrounding the spinal cord; may result in paralysis; may be prevented by taking folic acid during pregnancy

  2. ________________ - congenital abnormality in which the right & left palate fail to join medially; also prevented by taking _________ acid during pregnancy


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