First Continental Congress (Sept. 1774) 1st Continental Congress meets in
Most reps argued about the merits of & .
Protested presence of British Army. They meet through late fall of 1774. Seed of rebellion planted!
Intolerable Acts - Passed by Parliament to punish Massachusetts and specifically citizens of Boston.
Boston Port Bill – Close Boston Harbor
Massachusetts Government Act – eliminated elected assembly and gave Governor control. It forbid communities from holding more than one town meeting per year. Governor was General Thomas Gage
Administration of Justice Act (Murder Act) – person charged with murder while enforcing royal authority would be tried in Britain or other colonies.
New Quartering Act – requisition empty private buildings for the safe housing of troops.
Quebec Act – Actually was designed to finally settle the questions of what to do with territory gained from French & Indian War.
Retain throughout the region.
Retain old customs and of conquered people.
Extend boundaries all the way to Ohio River.
"I cannot but lament . . . the impending Calamities Britain and her Colonies are about to suffer, from great Imprudencies on both Sides -- Passion governs, and she never governs wisely -- Anxiety begins to disturb my Rest . . .
Benjamin Franklin -- Feb. 5, 1775 "The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people... This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people was the real American Revolution."
John Adams -- 1818
December of 1774 -Government in England now must choose what to do!
Their decision is to inform General Gage to send troops into countryside and seize rebellion leaders! Use any means necessary to stop the rebels
EVENTS OF THE REVOLUTION (1775-1781)
January 1775 -Letter to Gage sent by Parliament.
(1) & Mission (2) Use force to in colonies(3) Take no !
Military – Washington
Diplomatic – Franklin
Defensive Fighting Tactics
Agriculture Base – supply lines
Lack of Total Unity
Congress took no leadership role
No written until 1781
2nd Continental Congress (May 1775)
Colonists in America are now faced with a choice:
Resist - Submit -
Delegates from all 13 colonies are represented!
Many are advertising for a job! Washington arrives in his !
is chosen to write a Declaration of Independence – to give them something to fight for!
Other provisions are made for sending ambassadors abroad to plead the case for America!
American Revolution Chronology
Battle of Bunker Hill- ( ) First real Battle of American Revolution.
Takes Place of Boston. Actually called Breed’s Hill British soldiers involved… die!
Americans are entrenched at the top of the hill, British make futile attempt to take hill!
Results of this Battle :
Battle of Quebec – ( ) Benedict Arnold and his men had marched over 3000 miles through the Maine wilderness in the snow, sleet and freezing rain.
in ill fitting clothing would have frozen to death if not for the efforts of Arnold.
Results of this Battle:
Continental Congress - Delegates: Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, Adams.
Appoint Washington to . Issued paper Money, sent delegates abroad, and conducted affairs of Government.
Confusion as to what goal of Revolution actually is.
Battles in Congress between: Moderates-.Radicals-.
People of the Revolution:
Thomas Paine: Works for Congress . Had left wife & family behind in .
Prints “” as an attack on the King and idea of a monarchy.
Preserve public & personal virtue---Independence from England. Pamphlet was in the colonies!
Thomas Jefferson: Virginia Slave Holder. . Politician. .
Drafted the Declaration to be a by the colonists against the .
He wanted the ideas in the document to stand up in court!
Ben Franklin: Publisher of Inventor, , Diplomat
He serves on committee to write .
Actually edits the document for Jefferson, changing to !
This event gives status and power to his name and reputation for the rest of time!
John Adams: Politician, , Writer
Wants more of a role in the Political Process of the New Colonial Government.
See the Revolution as a way to make a .
He presented the Declaration of Independence to the .
He served as the of the Committee for War and Ordinance.
Eventually becomes of the USA under Washington.
Declaration of Independence:
June 7, 1776 – Richard Henry Lee drafts a fiery resolution on the floor of the hall that declares “these United colonies are, and of right ought to be free, and independent states. Motion adopted July 2, 1776.
Thomas Jefferson is asked to draft a .
Drafted as a against the actions/behaviors of the English.
Jefferson is trained as a lawyer, therefore he makes grand, overblown statements about how awful, and terrible the English are!
Declaration originally contained a clause to ….was eliminated by the Southern colonial representatives.
Final Draft presented on ! Signed
Content of Declaration of Independence:
1. Jefferson headed the committee drafting the written statement. Arguments were based on John Locke's contract theory of government:
a) All people have ("Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness")
b) When a government abuses rights, the people have a right
c) King George has acted . Long list of wrongs done by King to colonists.
d) The colonies are .
2. Declaration gave a clear position for rebellious colonists, forcing others to choose or declare as .
Revolution splits Colonies into two factions:
Battle of Trenton – ( ) Washington crosses the and surprises the .
Result of this Battle:
Fort Ticonderoga – ( ) Americans under the direction of are able to bring Heavy Artillery to in order to stop the British.
Valley Forge, PA -( ) Washington convinces the Colonial soldiers to and is able to use the winter months to