American Colonies: Colonial Assemblies



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  1. American Colonies:

  • Colonial Assemblies grow and expand throughout the 1600’s to for :

    • Taxes

    • Appointment of

    • Setting the !

  • A Battleground between & from 1689-1763.

  • French lost territory in America because of .

  • 1763-1st Spring of Peace in colonies in .

  • Publicly support the .

  • Prime Minister of England- George Grenville faced with a !

  1. Parliamentary Acts

  • Navigation Act (1651/1660/1696) – Eliminate in American Colonies for Trade.

  • Staple Act (1663) – Goods to be sold in Africa/Asia/Europe from America must !

  • Plantation Duty Act (1673) – Ship captains must that says they will deliver goods to or suffer financial penalties.

  • Woolens Act (1699) Prohibited of Woolen cloth from to England!

  • Hat Act (1732) – Prohibited export of !

  • Molasses Act (1733) – Non received a heavy tax burden.

  • Sugar Act (1764) – Combines . People are taxed twice on same goods!

George Grenville: (He is the )

Problems:



  • Defense- to defend new Ohio Valley territories.

  • Needs to run Government of England

  • Must do all of this while keeping the King happy (King George III is a moron!)

Grenville’s Plan for American Colonies: (ways to make money for English Crown)

(1)Control & defend Western boundaries of America.

  • Indian tribes in Ohio Valley territory went to war in 1763 (Pontiac’s rebellion)

  • Proclamation of 1763-states beyond settlement of .

  • Enforcement by British soldiers! (Only in entire 13 colonies!)

(2)Raise revenue from American colonies to pay for soldiers, protection that defense will require.

    • Revenue Act of 1764-import/export taxes will be then collected on a by colonial governor

Two Views of the Revenue Act of 1764

British Government

American Colonists


















Other Parliamentary Acts passed to raise money from the colonies:

Sugar Act - Quartering Act -

Currency Act - Stamp Act -

  1. Colonial Complaints against England Mount

No taxation without representation” -

  • The Colonists main battle cry! They had no “Vote” in Parliament to decide legislation that affected their lives!

  • Thomas Paine writes a pamphlet called

    • stresses belief in , Social Contracts and .

    • A series of events leads colonists to believe they have no other choice!….REVOLUTION!!

Patrick Henry:

  • Born May 29, 1736 in

  • Protested British tyranny. Symbol of American struggle for liberty

  • Served in the and the Continental Congress

  • Three-time governor of Virginia. Died June 6, 1799 at Red Hill Plantation, Virginia

Stamp Act of 1765 (Reaction by the colonists) VIRGINIA

    • May 1765-Colonial Assembly meets in

    • Patrick Henry to House of Burgesses.

      • Wife is mentally deranged. Life is in chaos Wants to make a name for himself!

    • Henry travels to .

    • Persuaded to give Speech against ! (He actually did not care!)

He attacks the Stamp Act in a fiery speech

  • Claims that it is a plot or conspiracy by to destroy the rights & liberties of all English colonial subjects!

  • End of Speech is met with !

  • At , Virginia resolves are passed.

Resolve #5 says citizens should be prepared to arm themselves to protect their rights!

  1. Reaction to the Virginia Resolves: BOSTON

  • Colonial Assembly abolished the at the end of the summer!

  • Papers along east Coast incorrectly printed !

  • Henry becomes

Reaction in Boston (1765) Had long been a in American Colonies.

  • Political divisions !

  • Became a battle between and city political leaders.

  • Two in particular are noteworthy:

  • Samuel Adams-most powerful man in the city! Leader of the

  • John Hancock-provided money for

1765 is election year for Colonial Assembly!

  • Governor’s candidates win .

  • Adams/Hancock now to unite colonists against Governor so they can gain control!

  • June 1765-news of reaches Boston.

  • & devise a plan to use to make Governor & others look like conspirators!

Media Slander:

  • Newspaper called the continually prints stories accusing Governor of conspiring to impose the .

  • Some articles even collected will go directly into his pockets!

  • People believe what they read whether or not it is TRUE!

August 14, 1765: STAMP ACT RIOTS

  • Governor & Sheriff come to .

  • Hanging on a tree are two effigies of & .

  • Governor tells sheriff to cut them down.

  • Sheriff refuses, he knows he !

  • Mob mentality takes over!

Chaos in the Streets:

  • Go Nuts! Start & everything that resembles .

  • Burn Governor’s !

  • Night of August 16th-more violence, looting, etc.,.

    • Governor issues call for Colonial Militia to help!

  • No response because !

  • Asks British soldiers at to take control!

  • Chaos reigns supreme for three days. Local Boston Stamp sellers all quit! People have won!

  1. Reaction of the British Parliament:

July 1766 - People will accept two kinds of taxes:

  • Internal- & in the colonies.

  • External-custom duties, !

Townshend decides there will only be External taxes imposed upon American Colonies.

  • 1767-Parliament passes the on Goods produced in the colonies.

  • Items include

  • Townshend believes it is good idea because returns to England.

  • He says that it will be used to pay for salaries of . Believes he is giving Americans what they want!

  • Colonists see them as !

Reaction of Colonists:

1768-69

  • George III sends 1,000 soldiers to Boston to stop the violence!

  • March 1770-All of the are repealed except for the tax on !

  • -symbolized for Parliament that they !

  1. Significant Events leading to the America Revolution

  • Boston Massacre (1770) - Some colonists were upset over British troops being housed in colonists homes

  • Protesting in square of Boston

  • Colonists throw and .

  • Somehow, a gun is fired, or… , and disaster! British troops !

  • Five people die: !

  • Gaspee Incident (1772)

  • Citizens of Rhode Island had burned .

  • Gaspee, commanded by Lt. Dudingston was .

  • June 9, 1772 – the Gaspee ran aground near Providence, RI.

  • June 10 – Colonists boarded the boat and wounded the Lieutenant.

  • Boat was Burned.

  • Dudingston was arrested for by the local sheriff.

  • He stood trial three times and lost all three.

  • Eventually the Royal Navy held a against him!

  • Tea Act of 1773 - British East India Co. asks for .

  • It needs money to keep from . Parliament passes for American Colonies.

  • Forgot that there is still a tax on Tea from ! Colonists outraged by actions of British

  • Boston Tea Party (Nov/Dec 1773) - Tea ships arrive in . Dock workers refuse

  • Governor of Massachusetts issues ultimatum- or else he will use force!

  • Dec. 16th 1773-60-80 men marched through streets on way to wharf.

  • Destroyed as a symbol of rebellion against English colonial rule in colonies.

  • Sons of Liberty: Revolutionary group funded by John Hancock in Boston.

  • Leader of the Group was .

  • GOAL: Create Create Create for British!

  • British Reaction to the Tea Party: They see this as a challenge to British authority!

  • January of 1774-George III decides to punish the city of Boston for Tea Party disaster!

  • Massachusetts Acts passed

  • Closes Punish conspirators/ Prevent

  • Governor has authority to use troops when needed.

  • revoked! put in place. Boston is now a !

  • First Continental Congress (Sept. 1774) 1st Continental Congress meets in

  • Most reps argued about the merits of & .

  • Protested presence of British Army. They meet through late fall of 1774. Seed of rebellion planted!

Intolerable Acts - Passed by Parliament to punish Massachusetts and specifically citizens of Boston.

  1. Boston Port Bill – Close Boston Harbor

  2. Massachusetts Government Act – eliminated elected assembly and gave Governor control. It forbid communities from holding more than one town meeting per year. Governor was General Thomas Gage

  3. Administration of Justice Act (Murder Act) – person charged with murder while enforcing royal authority would be tried in Britain or other colonies.

  4. New Quartering Act – requisition empty private buildings for the safe housing of troops.

  5. Quebec Act – Actually was designed to finally settle the questions of what to do with territory gained from French & Indian War.

  • Provisions:

  • Retain throughout the region.

  • Retain old customs and of conquered people.

  • Extend boundaries all the way to Ohio River.

"I cannot but lament . . . the impending Calamities Britain and her Colonies are about to suffer, from great Imprudencies on both Sides -- Passion governs, and she never governs wisely -- Anxiety begins to disturb my Rest . . .

Benjamin Franklin -- Feb. 5, 1775
"The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people... This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people was the real American Revolution."

John Adams -- 1818

  • December of 1774 -Government in England now must choose what to do!

  • Their decision is to inform General Gage to send troops into countryside and seize rebellion leaders! Use any means necessary to stop the rebels

  1. EVENTS OF THE REVOLUTION (1775-1781)

January 1775 -Letter to Gage sent by Parliament.

  • Stipulations:

  • (1) & Mission (2) Use force to in colonies(3) Take no !

  • Gage does not receive letter until . This allowed rebels to stock up/prep for the war!

American Spy Network

  • American colonists had a . They knew every move the British were making!

  • was leader of American Intelligence network! Creation of result of this network of spies. One if by land, two if by sea….

Battle of Lexington & Concorde (1775)

  • April 18, 1775 - British Troops march into countryside on mission. British soldiers !

  • It’s dark, they are confused! Paul Revere makes his famous ride to warn the citizens of & The name of the other rider is:

  • He is captured early in the night! By Dawn on April 19th, are waiting in Lexington for the British arrival.

  • British Major is in charge of British soldiers.

  • He rides up to minutemen and orders them to “lay down your arms, you dirty rebels!”

  • When throw down their guns, they misfire. The British soldiers on the minutemen!

  • Chaos now ensues! Minutemen now open fire on and charge .

  • A running battle takes place between Lexington & Concorde.

  • Americans have just attacked the most powerful army in the world!

  • This is the 1st “Battle” of Revolution--lasts 3-4 hours.

  • British Army loses about in ambush attacks by American Colonists.

  • British Army returns to Boston that night and never . Rebels own it!

British Assumptions

  1. They believe this will be a , …just a matter of time!

  2. Limited War-just in , won’t spread!

  3. Rebels are cowards, can’t fight like !

  4. If it lasts a longtime, then the French will

Comparison of British and American Strengths/Weaknesses

GREAT BRITAIN

AMERICAN COLONIES

  1. Strengths

    1. Population



    2. Naval Forces

    3. Professional Army of 110,000

      1. `

      2. 30,000 Hessians

      3. 30,000

  2. Weaknesses

    1. Inept Leadership of Govt

    2. Military Difficulties

    3. Generals

    4. Poor Provisions

    5. Vast Colonial Territory

    6. Army= 30,000 miles from




  1. Strengths

    1. Outstanding Leadership

      1. Military – Washington

      2. Diplomatic – Franklin

    2. Defensive Fighting Tactics

    3. Agriculture Base – supply lines

    4. Moral Advantage

  2. Weaknesses

    1. Lack of Total Unity

    2. Congress took no leadership role

    3. No written until 1781

    4. Limited Supplies





2nd Continental Congress (May 1775)

Colonists in America are now faced with a choice:



Resist - Submit -

  • Delegates from all 13 colonies are represented!

  • Many are advertising for a job! Washington arrives in his !

  • is chosen to write a Declaration of Independence – to give them something to fight for!

  • Other provisions are made for sending ambassadors abroad to plead the case for America!

  1. American Revolution Chronology

  • Battle of Bunker Hill- ( ) First real Battle of American Revolution.

  • Takes Place of Boston. Actually called Breed’s Hill British soldiers involved… die!

  • Americans are entrenched at the top of the hill, British make futile attempt to take hill!

  • Results of this Battle :

  • Battle of Quebec – ( ) Benedict Arnold and his men had marched over 3000 miles through the Maine wilderness in the snow, sleet and freezing rain.

  • in ill fitting clothing would have frozen to death if not for the efforts of Arnold.

  • Results of this Battle:

  • Continental Congress - Delegates: Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, Adams.

  • Appoint Washington to . Issued paper Money, sent delegates abroad, and conducted affairs of Government.

  • Confusion as to what goal of Revolution actually is.

  • Battles in Congress between: Moderates- .Radicals- .




  1. People of the Revolution:

Thomas Paine: Works for Congress . Had left wife & family behind in .

  • Prints “ ” as an attack on the King and idea of a monarchy.

  • Preserve public & personal virtue---Independence from England. Pamphlet was in the colonies!

Thomas Jefferson: Virginia Slave Holder. . Politician. .

  • Drafted the Declaration to be a by the colonists against the .

  • He wanted the ideas in the document to stand up in court!

Ben Franklin: Publisher of Inventor, , Diplomat

  • He serves on committee to write .

  • Actually edits the document for Jefferson, changing to !

  • This event gives status and power to his name and reputation for the rest of time!

John Adams: Politician, , Writer

  • Wants more of a role in the Political Process of the New Colonial Government.

  • See the Revolution as a way to make a .

  • He presented the Declaration of Independence to the .

  • He served as the of the Committee for War and Ordinance.

  • Eventually becomes of the USA under Washington.

Declaration of Independence:

June 7, 1776 – Richard Henry Lee drafts a fiery resolution on the floor of the hall that declares “these United colonies are, and of right ought to be free, and independent states. Motion adopted July 2, 1776.

  • Thomas Jefferson is asked to draft a .

  • Drafted as a against the actions/behaviors of the English.

  • Jefferson is trained as a lawyer, therefore he makes grand, overblown statements about how awful, and terrible the English are!

  • Declaration originally contained a clause to ….was eliminated by the Southern colonial representatives.

  • Final Draft presented on ! Signed

Content of Declaration of Independence:

1. Jefferson headed the committee drafting the written statement. Arguments were based on John Locke's contract theory of government:

a) All people have ("Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness")

b) When a government abuses rights, the people have a right

c) King George has acted . Long list of wrongs done by King to colonists.

d) The colonies are .

2. Declaration gave a clear position for rebellious colonists, forcing others to choose or declare as .

Revolution splits Colonies into two factions:



LOYALISTS

PATRIOTS

















More Battles:

  • Battle of Trenton – ( ) Washington crosses the and surprises the .

  • Result of this Battle:

  • Fort Ticonderoga – ( ) Americans under the direction of are able to bring Heavy Artillery to in order to stop the British.

  • Valley Forge, PA -( ) Washington convinces the Colonial soldiers to and is able to use the winter months to

  • Lake Champlain ( ) British Goal was to repel the into Canada. British Goal was to capture NYC. They Did!

  • Brandywine ( ) 25 miles south of . British advanced North from Chesapeake Bay. Cut off by Washington near , PA. DRAW-NEITHER SIDE WON!

  • Battle of Saratoga ( ) Deciding point of the War for the Americans! (French decide to give support because of this battle!) British were pinned down by the Americans.

  • There is no choice for the British commander but to surrender if he wants to live!

  • British commander surrenders his sword!

  • News of American Victory spread throughout colonies = Encourages others to enlist!

  • Battle of Monmouth ( ) Americans vs British troops. Initial Battle looked like Americans would lose, but Washington regrouped on 2nd day for victory! American Victory!

  • Battle of Cowpens ( ) 1,000 Americans led by defeat 1, 100 British under command of north of Spartanburg, SC. This is in the PATRIOT! American Victory!

  • Battle of Guilford Courthouse ( ) Americans control while the British

  • Battle of Yorktown, VA ( ) Last battle official battle of the Revolution! British surrender at Yorktown because band Played

Results of the American Revolution:

Articles of Confederation: Loosely based agreement among 13 American states.

  • First .

  • They had limited powers in a single house Legislature.

    • Could not raise taxes or pay for an Army.

    • States conducted their own negotiations among foreign powers.

    • No Laws were passed because Federal Govt. had no Power over State Government.

    • From 1783 to 1789, Virtually no Work was done. Govt. was in debt from Revolution, states had all the power, total chaos!








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