Amalgam Mercury, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Immune System Impairment



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Amalgam Mercury, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Immune System Impairment

Antibiotic resistance in oral/respiratory bacteria. Roberts (1998). Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 9:522-540.   (9825225)


The dental amalgam mercury controversy-inorganic mercury and the CNS; genetic linkage of mercury and antibiotic resistances in intestinal bacteria. Lorscheider et al., (1995). Toxicology 97:19-22. (7716785)


Mercury released from dental "silver" fillings provokes an increase in mercury- and antibiotic -resistant bacteria in oral and intestinal floras of primates. Summers et. al., (1993). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:825-834.(8280208)


Resistance of the normal human microflora to mercury and antimicrobials after exposure to mercury from dental amalgam fillings. Edlund et. al., (1996). Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:944-950.(8783691)


The impact of mercury released from dental "silver" fillings on antibiotic resistances in the primate oral and intestinal bacterial flora. Liebert et. al., (1997). Met. Ions Biol. Syst. 34:441-460. (9046579)


The resistance and adaptation of selected oral bacteria to mercury and its impact on their growth. Lyttle and Bowden (1993). J. Dent. Res. 72:1325-1330.   (768900)


Effects of mercury on the immune system. Pollard and Hultman. (1997). Met. Ions Biol. Sys. 34:421-440.(9046578)


Dental amalgam and antibiotic resistance-an association? Editorial (1997). Sci. Prog. 80:103-106.(9263508)


Antibiotic resistance mechanisms in bacteria of oral and upper respiratory origin. Roberts (1998). Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 9:255-267.(9573495)


Effects of occupational exposure to mercury vapors on T-cell and NK-cell populations. Moszczynski et al., (1996). Arch. Med. Res. 27:503-507. (8987185)


Cloning of mercury-resistance gene from R-plasmid in Escherichia coli isolated from dental hospital sewage. Arii and Abiko (1989). Gen. Pharmacol. 20:609-614.(2691324)


Heavy metal resistance in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Vasishta et. al., (1989). Folia Microbiol. (Praha.) 34:448-452.(2517120)


Loss of mercury from amalgam fillings and abnormal oral bacterial flora as a cause of periodontal disease. Till (1978). ZWR 87:1076-1083.(282721)


Study of the horizontal transfer of mercury resistance genes in natural populations of bacteria using antibodies to mercury reductases. Bogdanova et. al., (1988). Mol. Gen. Mikrobiol. Virusol. 12:16-23.(3150770)


Does amalgam affect the immune system? A controversial issue. Enestrom and Hultman (1995). Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 106:180-203. (7888781)


Effects of mercury on the immune system. Pollard and Hultman (1997). Met. Ions Biol. Syst. 34:421-440. (9046578)


Activation of the immune system and systemic immune-complex deposits in Brown Norway rats with dental amalgam restorations. Hultman et. al., (1998). J. Dent. Res. 77:1415-1425.(9649170)


Adverse immunological effects and autoimmunity induced by dental amalgam and alloy in mice. Hultman et al., (1994). FASEB J. 8:1183-1190.(7958626)


Localized cellular inflammatory responses to subcutaneously implanted dental mercury. Nadarajah et. al., (1996). J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 49:113-125.(8874531)


Cellular inflammatory responses to implanted dental materials. Nadarajah et. al., (1996). J. Prosthet. Dent. 75:552-561.(8709023)


In vitro effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) on human mononuclear cells. Loftenius et. al., (1997). Clin. Exp. Immunol. 110:418-422.(9409645)


Cytotoxicity and accumulation of Hg, Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in human peripheral T and B lyphocytes and monocytes in vitro. Steffenson et. al., (1994). Gen. Pharmacol. 25:1621-1633.(7721038)


Immunotoxic effects of mercuric compounds on human lymphocytes and monocytes. I. Suppression of T-cell activation. Shenker et. al., (1992). Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 14:539-553.(1517533)


Immunotoxic effects of mercuric compounds on human lymphocytes and monocytes. II. Alterations in cell viability. Shenker et. al., (1992). Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 14:555-577.(1517534)


Immunotoxic effects of mercuric compounds on human lymphocytes and monocytes. III. Alterations in B-cell function. Shenker et. al., (1993). Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 15:87-112.(8450183)


Immunotoxic effects of mercuric compounds on human lymphocytes and monocytes. IV. Alterations in cellular glutathione content. Shenker et. al., (1993). Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 15:273-290. (8349953)


Immunotoxicology of cadmium and mercury on B-lymphocytes I. Effects on lymphocyte function. Daum et al., (1993). Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 15:383-394.     (7685007)


In vitro effects of mercuric chloride  (HgCl2) on human mononuclear cells. Loftenius et. al., (1997). Clin. Exp. Immunol. 110:418-422.(9409645)


Effects of mercury on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in vitro. Contrino et. al., (1988). Am. J. Pathol. 132:110-118.(3394794)


Low levles of mercury inhibit the respiratory burst in human polymorphnuclear leukocytes. Malamud et. al., (1985). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 128:1145-1151.(2988529)


Parameters of immunity acute phase reaction in men in relation to exposure duration to mercury vapours. Moszczynski et. al., (1991). J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 35:351-360.(1725175)


The level of mercury in human dental plaque and interactions in vitro between biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and dental amalgam. Little and Bowden (1993). J. Dent. Res. 72:1320-1324.(8360382)


Acute exposure to mercury from amalgam: no short-time effect on the peripheral blood lymphocytes in healthy individuals. Loftenius et al., (1998). J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 54:547-560. (9726779)


Methylation of mercury from dental amalgam and mercuric chloride by oral streptococci in vitro. Heintze et. al., (1983). Scand. J. Dent. Res. 91:150-152.(6222462)


Mercury sensitization induced by environmental exposure. Mori et al., (1998). Nippon Eisenigaku Zasshi 52:661-666.(9528265)


An epidemiological study of factors relating to mercury sensitization. Sato et al., (1995). Arerugi 44:86-92. (7726753)

Compiled by:



Boyd Haley, Ph.D., Chairman of Chemistry Department, University of Kentucky, USA

http://iaomt.org/testfoundation/amalgam.htm


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