Alston Publishing House Pte Ltd Science smart teacher’s Guide Grade 4 Chapter 1 Lesson Plans



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© 2012 Alston Publishing House Pte Ltd Science SMART Teacher’s Guide Grade 4 Chapter 1 Lesson Plans


Lesson Plans
Chapter 1: The Life Cycles of Animals

Total number of periods: 10 periods


Overview of Lesson Plans
How Do Animals Reproduce? (2 periods)

Lesson

Specific Instructional Objectives

Cambridge Primary Scientific Enquiry Skills

Process Skills

21st Century Skills

Number of Periods

1.1


Pupils should:

  • know how and why animals reproduce

Collect evidence in a variety of contexts. (Ep1)

Contrasting

Communicating

Analysing


Communicate clearly

Environmental literacy

Reason effectively

Make judgements and decisions



2


What Are the Life Cycles of Some Animals? (6 periods)

Lesson

Specific Instructional Objectives

Cambridge Primary Scientific Enquiry Skills

Process Skills

21st Century Skills

Number of Periods

1.2


Pupils should:

Collect evidence in a variety of contexts. (Ep1)
Make relevant observations and comparisons in a variety of contexts. (Eo1)

Comparing

Organising

Analysing

Observing

Classifying

Communicating

Comparing

Inferring



Use systems thinking

Reason effectively

Manage projects

Collaborate with others

Environmental literacy

Apply technology effectively

Be self-directed learners


6


Why Do Young Grow Up to Look Like Their Parents? (2 periods)

Lesson

Specific Instructional Objectives

Cambridge Primary Scientific Enquiry Skills

Process Skills

21st Century Skills

Number of Periods

1.3


Pupils should:

  • understand effect of genes in animal development

Collect evidence in a variety of contexts. (Ep1)
Make relevant observations and comparisons in a variety of contexts. (Eo1)

Observing

Comparing

Organising

Analysing

Inferring


Be self-directed learners

Health literacy

Make judgements and decisions

Environmental literacy



2

Main Lesson Plans
Lesson 1.1

BSCS 5E

Lesson Notes

Resources


Engage:

Questions are posed to recall pupils’ prior knowledge



Explore:

Things around pupils are used to generate new idea



Explain:

Pupils demonstrate their understanding through inquiries




Elaborate:

Pupils extend understanding through the project




Evaluate:

Pupils’ understanding is assessed through quiz



Background: Pupils learnt that living things undergo life processes in Grade 3 Chapter 1: Living Things and Their Life Processes. Adult animals reproduce to make more of their own kind. Animals also grow to get bigger, taller and heavier. An introduction of animal life cycles can be found in this website.
Chapter opener

Recap with pupils the life processes they have learnt in Grade 3 Chapter 1: Living Things and Their Life Processes.


Ask pupils:

  • What is reproduction? (Answer: Reproduction is a process by which a young is produced from its parents.)

  • Why do animals reproduce? (Answer: Animals reproduce to ensure the survival of their species.)

  • How do animals reproduce? (Answer: In most of the cases, two parents of the same species but of different sexes mate to form new offspring. The female adults give birth to young alive or by laying eggs.)


Activity: Ask pupils if they have any pets. Invite pupils to describe and share the changes in their pets at different stages of their growth. Ask pupils who do not have pets to bring their baby photos to class and describe if there are any changes in their appearance and abilities.
Explain that:

  • Animals have different life cycles.

  • Animals are able to grow up.


Process Skills: Contrasting, Communicating
21st Century Skill: Communicate clearly
What’s In This Chapter?, What Will I Learn?

Emphasise to pupils what their learning journey will be like for this chapter.



  • The life cycles of animals are the result of reproduction.

  • The life cycles of animals can have three stages or four stages.


Teaching Tip: Trace the path of the mind map by reading out loud.
How Do Animals Reproduce?

Background: There are different groups of animals and they may reproduce in different ways. Some animals reproduce by giving birth to young alive and some by laying eggs.
Tell pupils to recall what they have learnt about how different groups of animals reproduce in Grade 3 Chapter 2: Sorting Living Things.
Ask pupils:

  • How are the two methods of reproduction in animals different? (Answer: In animals that lay eggs, the embryo is developed inside the egg. The egg provides food and a protective shell for the embryo to grow until it is ready to be born. When the baby animal is ready, it will break out of the shell. In animals that give birth to young alive, the embryo is protected and gets what it needs inside its mother’s body. When the baby is ready to be born, labour is triggered to push the baby out of the mother’s body.)

  • What will happen if living things do not reproduce? (Answer: All living things will die one day. If a kind of animal or plant does not reproduce to give new life, the species will die out or become extinct.)

Explain that:



  • Reproduction produces new individual from the parents. It is an important process to continue the life cycle of living things.

  • Different animals reproduce in different ways.


Teaching Tip: Show pupils videos of births of animals to deepen their understanding.
Tell pupils that the life cycles of plants are different from the life cycles of animals. They will find out more about the life cycle of plants in Grade 5 Chapter 1: The Life Cycle of Plants.
Common Misconception: Point out the difference between ‘extinct’ and ‘endangered’. ‘Extinct’ means that that species does not exist on Earth any more. ‘Endangered’ means there are only a few of the species left and the species is at risk of becoming extinct.
Project Idea: Get pupils to find examples of extinct species of animals and study the reasons for their extinction. Then ask pupils to choose some endangered species and discuss the ways to stop them from becoming extinct.
Process Skill: Analysing
21st Century Skills: Environmental literacy; Reason effectively
Activity: Make a quiz to test whether students can distinguish the methods of reproduction in different animals.
Process Skill: Analysing
21st Century Skill: Make judgements and decisions



URL 1.1

Textbook page 1


Textbook page 2


Textbook page 3


URLs 1.2, 1.3

Textbook page 4
Workbook page 1

Activity 1: Ways of Reproduction


Workbook page 17

Worksheet 3: Frog Frenzy!


Consolidation Worksheet 1


Internet links for Lesson 1.1
URL 1.1: Animal Life Cycles

http://www.kidzone.ws/animals/lifecycle.htm
URL 1.2: Animation of birth of human baby

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pHLgva3PLuk
URL 1.3: Video of frog eggs hatching into tadpoles

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B3d48VfQHbY
Lesson 1.2

BSCS 5E

Lesson Notes

Resources


Engage:

Pupils get involved in the topic through inquiry-based activity



Explain:

New concept is explained after inquiries


Explore:

Pupils build their own understanding through direct observation



Elaborate:

Pupils apply their knowledge to complete the activity



Evaluate:

Using activity to assess and clarify pupils’ understanding



What Are the Life Cycles of Some Animals?

Activity: Introduce the concept of life cycle to pupils. Get pupils to skim through the whole section and compare different life cycles first based on what they can see.
Ask pupils:

  • Are there any common stages in different life cycles? (Answer: Yes, all life cycles have the egg stage, the young stage (or larva stage for animals that undergo metamorphosis) and the adult stage.)

  • What are the characteristics of these common stages? (Answer: Baby animals develop inside the egg before they hatch at the egg stage. The young stage is the growth stage of the animal until it reaches maturity. The adult stage is the stage that the animal is sexually mature and is able to carry out reproduction to give birth to its own offspring.)

Explain that:



  • Life cycle is the order of stages that a living thing goes through from beginning to adult.

  • Different animals have different life cycles.

  • The stages in a life cycle include the animal entering the world (the egg stage), undergoing changes and growth (the young stage), as well as the adult stage for reproduction.


Process Skills: Comparing, Organising, Analysing
21st Century Skills: Use systems thinking; Reason effectively
Life cycles with three stages

Ask pupils:



    • Which animals have three stages in their life cycle? (Answer: Answers include birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles. Accept all possible answers.)

Explain that:



    • Animals with three stages in their life cycle start their life cycles as eggs. Then they hatch and grow at the young stage. When they become adults, they are able to reproduce.


Teaching Tips:

  1. Show pupils the video of a chick hatching.

  2. You can break an uncooked egg to show the pupils the egg yolk and egg white. You can reinforce the fact that the egg shell protects the young and the egg yolk is a source of food for the young.


Common Misconception: Chicken eggs sold as food are produced by hens that have not mated. These eggs are unfertilised and no chicks will be hatched from them.
Ask pupils:

    • Why does a cockroach moult? (Answer: The cockroach’s body is covered with a hard shell. The shell is rigid and cannot grow like skin. Therefore, the shell has to be shed off to let the cockroach grow bigger.)


Activity: As an extra activity, pupils can find out more about the life cycle of a grasshopper and see how the young look like.
Ask pupils:

    • Why do the young of some animals look different from the adult? (Answer: This is because some animals, such as the frog and the dragonfly, undergo a sudden and distinct change of appearance from the young or larva stage to adult. This is a process called metamorphosis.)

Explain that:



    • Not all young animals resemble their parents. Some may undergo metamorphosis from young to adult.


Teaching Tip: Show pupils the video of the life cycle of a frog.
Life cycles with four stages

Ask pupils:



    • What is the similarity between animals that have four stages in their life cycles? (Answer: They are all insects that undergo complete metamorphosis (with pupa stage).)

    • What is the purpose of the pupa stage? (Answer: Metamorphosis takes place inside the pupa. It allows larval structures to break down and form into adults.)

    • What is the advantage of metamorphosis? (Answer: Metamorphosis usually does not only change the animals’ appearance but also changes their behaviour and habitat. Therefore the larvae and adults do not compete for food and other resources.)

Explain that:



    • Animals that undergo complete metamorphosis have four stages in their life cycles.


Project Idea: Get pupils to bring their mealworm pet to school or keep their own class mealworm pet. Ask pupils to observe its growth and make a report on its life cycle.
Process Skills: Observing, Organising
21st Century Skill: Manage projects
Teaching Tip: Show pupils the video of the life cycle of a butterfly.
Activities:

  1. Show pupils the movie in the website and get them to try out the interactive games to learn about the life cycles of frogs, butterflies and birds.

You should point out to pupils that the life cycle of a frog can be divided into five sections to show the detailed transformation of a tadpole into a frog. Before the frog fully becomes an adult, it has a tail which would eventually disappear. Recall the cartoon in the chapter opener. In actual fact, there are only three stages in the life cycle of a frog. The same goes for the life cycle of butterflies (there are actually four stages, not five as shown in the games) and for the life cycle of birds (there are actually three stages, not four). Then, get pupils to do an Internet search to find out more about the life cycle of a snake as suggested in the Textbook.




  1. Pupils can learn more about parasitic wasps from the suggested website.


21st Century Skills: Environmental literacy; Reason effectively; Use systems thinking; Apply technology effectively
Activity: Show pupils the suggested website in Discover More! on the life cycle of a mosquito. Get pupils to do an Internet search to find out what wrigglers feed on. Then, get them to research on the life cycle of bedbugs and ways to get rid of them, as they are pests that affect humans.
21st Century Skills: Environmental literacy; Reason effectively; Use systems thinking; Apply technology effectively
You can use these activities to summarise the lesson.
Activity: Bring pictures of animals at different stages in their life cycles to class. Test whether pupils know the correct order of development of animals by getting them to arrange the pictures in the correct order in the life cycle.
Process Skills: Observing, Analysing
Activity: Give a list of animals to pupils to classify them according to the number of stages in their life cycles. Then, get pupils to form groups and design a poster to show clearly each stage in the life cycles of these animals.
Process Skills: Classifying, Communicating, Analysing
21st Century Skills: Collaborate with others; Be self-directed learners
Activity: Carry out the investigative activity in Experiment Time! that compares the differences between a frog and a tadpole. Remind pupils to take good care of the animals. No animals should be harmed in the activity.
Explain that:

    • There are significant differences between tadpoles and frogs as tadpoles undergo metamorphosis to become adult frogs.


Process Skills: Observing, Comparing, Inferring
21st Century Skill: Reason effectively
Activity: Carry out the activity in Build Your Skills! You may show pupils videos of the chicken and butterfly’s growth before answering the questions. Tell pupils to give an explanation for each answer to assess their understanding.
Process Skills: Observing, Comparing
Field Trip Idea: You can organise a class excursion to a farm or an eco-garden where you can observe the animals (e.g. chickens, horses, goats, butterflies or frogs) at different stages of life. Get pupils to compare the similarities and differences between the parents and their young.
Teaching Strategy: Relating to real life
Process Skills: Observing, Comparing

Textbook page 5

URL 1.4


Textbook page 6

Textbook page 7


URL 1.5
Textbook page 8

Workbook pages 3—4

Activity 2: My Mealworm Pet!



Textbook page 9

URL 1.6
URL 1.7

URL 1.8


Textbook page 10

URL 1.9

Workbook pages 5 – 7

Activity 3: Complete My Life Cycle!



Textbook page 11
Workbook pages 9—10

Activity 4: Animal Life Cycles


Workbook page 16

Worksheet 2: Life Cycle of a Butterfly


Consolidation Worksheet 2


Internet links for Lesson 1.2
URL 1.4: Video of hatching of a chick (corresponds to Internet Link 1.1 in Textbook)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tof5b1Qs_OE

URL 1.5: Video of life cycle of frog

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDabzEJoa_A
URL 1.6: Video of life cycle of butterfly

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7AUeM8MbaIk
URL 1.7: (Interactive) Life cycles of birds, frogs and butterflies (corresponds to Internet Link 1.2 in Textbook)

http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/scienceforkids/life_cycle/index.htm
URL 1.8: Video of parasitic wasp invading a caterpillar (corresponds to Internet Link 1.3 in Textbook)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMG-LWyNcAs
URL 1.9: Video of life cycle of mosquito (corresponds to Internet Link 1.4 in Textbook)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wFfO7f8Vr9c&feature=fvwrel
Lesson 1.3

BSCS 5E

Lesson Notes

Resources

Engage:

Pupils are given an interesting idea to think about



Explore:

Pupils are given a chance to realise how the knowledge can be applied


Elaborate:

Pupils are encouraged to give more real-life examples




Explain:

A further explanation is provided to avoid misconception




Evaluate:

Pupils’ progress and teaching effectiveness can be evaluated



Why Do Young Grow Up to Look Like Their Parents?

This section needs to be handled with sensitivity, especially around pupils who come from single-parent families or pupils who are adopted.


Activity: You may do this activity before teaching this section. Get pupils to examine certain characteristics in front of mirrors e.g. whether they have single or double eyelids, attached or detached earlobes etc. Then ask pupils to find out whether their parents have the same characteristics as well.
Process Skill: Observing, Comparing
Ask pupils:

  • Why do we look like our parents? (Answer: The information that determines our bodies grow and develop comes from our parents.)

  • What traits can be inherited from parents? (Answer: Accept all possible answers. e.g. hair colour, eye colour, dimples, attached or detached earlobes, blood type, etc.)

  • Do you look exactly like either of your parents? Why? (Answer: No, because genes are taken from both our parents. Therefore, you may get features from either of your parents. In addition, some traits are determined by the combination of several genes, so there are chances of getting traits that are not present in both parents. Environmental factors can also affect the traits. For example, height is an inherited trait, but it depends on nutrition as well.)

Explain that:



  • Genes make young grow up to look like their parents. They retain the identity of a species from generation to generation.


Activity: Prepare photographs of a few adults and photographs of these people when they were young. Let the pupils pair up photographs of the same person. Ask the pupils if there were any distinctive characteristics that helped them to pair up the photographs.


Teaching Tip: After going through the examples in Textbook, ask pupils to give other examples of animals where the young look like their parents, and those that do not look like their parents at all.
Project Idea: Discover More! has introduced diseases that can be inherited. Get pupils to find out more about inherited diseases (e.g. colour blindness, sickle cell anaemia, Huntington’s disease) including their symptoms and treatments.
Process Skills: Organising, Analysing
21st Century Skills: Be self-directed learners; Health literacy
Common Misconception: As introduced in Discover More, some traits are not inherited from parents. Traits that acquired after birth through learning or experience cannot be passed from one generation to another. For example, we can walk because we learnt how to walk, and not because of the genes from our parents. Give more examples (e.g. ability of writing, speaking, riding a bike, etc) or get them to discuss in groups or do an Internet search to find out more about acquired traits.
Activity: Explore how unique fingerprints are. Using an inkpad, get all pupils to put their thumbprint or fingerprint on the same piece of paper, and write their name beside their print. Then, ask pupils to leave the same thumbprint or fingerprint on a separate piece of paper without writing their names. You will then collect the paper, shuffle them and redistribute them randomly to the pupils. Ask pupils to find out whose thumbprint it is on the paper that they received by comparing the print with those in the common paper.
Explain that:

    • Fingerprints are unique. Even family members do not have the same fingerprints. Fingerprints cannot be inherited.


Process Skills: Observing, Comparing
21st Century Skill: Make judgements and decisions
Wrap up the chapter with the following:
Talk It Out

Teaching Tip: Read the new words out loud and have pupils repeat each word after you so they can learn to pronounce the words correctly. Then, have pupils pair up to test each other on the meaning of the words.
Map It Out

Teaching Tip: Go through the concepts with pupils after finishing the chapter. Trace the path of the mind map by reading out load. You may wish to draw the map as you speak.

  • Reproduction is important to living things to ensure the continuity of their own kind.

  • Animals can reproduce by laying eggs or giving birth to young alive.

  • Traits are passed down from parents to their young through genes.

  • Some young look like parents, but some young look different from their parents.

  • All young will grow into adults that look like their parents.

  • The life cycles of animals can include giving birth to their young alive.

  • Most mammals such as humans, sheep and sealions, give birth to their young alive.

  • The life cycles of animals can have three stages or four stages.

  • The life cycles with three stages involve the egg, young and adult.

  • Examples of animals with this kind of life cycle are chickens, cockroaches and frogs.

  • The life cycles with four stages involve the egg, larva, pupa and adult.

  • Examples of animals with this kind of life cycle are mealworm beetles, butterflies and mosquitoes.


Work It Out

Get pupils to complete the exercise to check their understanding. Go through the hint with pupils when answering part ‘a’.


Process Skills: Observing, Inferring
Science @ Work

Teaching Tips:

  1. Tell pupils to recall what they have learnt about silk and getting silk from silkworms in Grade 3 Chapter 5: Materials All Around Us.

  2. To boost pupils’ reading and speaking confidence, have pupils take turns reading the passage, e.g. each pupil could read one paragraph. Encourage pupils to read with enthusiasm and emotion.


21st Century Skills: Environmental literacy

Textbook page 12

Workbook pages 11—12

Activity 5: My Family Tree



Textbook page 14

Textbook page 15

Workbook page 13

Activity 6: How Similar Am I to My Parents?


Workbook page 15

Worksheet 1: Compare Me!


Consolidation Worksheet 3

Textbook page 16


Textbook page 17
Textbook page 18
Fun Activity
Exam Practice




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