Air force 16. 1 Small Business Innovation Research (sbir) Proposal Submission Instructions



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PHASE I: Develop and demonstrate a statistical algorithm of a target model with a well-defined API that would facilitate integration with government owned scene generator systems. The specific target model, for example T-72, should include appropriate statistical variations of the target signature. Recommend a method to validate the proposed algorithm.

PHASE II: Finalize and validate the design through more testing over tanks (T-72, ZSU-23-4, BMP) and battlefield wheeled vehicles (BM-21, URAL-375). Developed models and software must be made available to the prime contractor for SDB-II and/or JCM in support of the validated concept.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Expand the development of statistical variation of target signatures to include both military and civilian applications. Results should be transitionable to all DoD services, as well as their supporting contractors.

REFERENCES:

1. Dennis Crow; Charles Coker; Wayne Keen, “Fast line-of-sight imagery for target and exhaust-plume signatures (FLITES) scene generation program,” SPIE 6208, Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing XI, 16 May 2006.

2. James Savage, Charles Coker, Bea Thai, et al., “Irma 5.2 multi-sensor signature prediction model,” SPIE 6965, Modeling and Simulation for Military Operations III, 11 April 2008.

3. Stephanie Brown Reitmeier, “Missile Simulation in Support of Research, Development, Test Evaluation and Acquisition,” National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA), 15 May 2012.

4. https://modelexchange.army.mil.

KEYWORDS: Fast Line-of-sight Imagery for Targets and Exhaust Signatures, FLITES, Common Scene Generator, CSG, Irma, AMRDEC Virtual Target Center, mid-wave infrared, MWIR, long-wave infrared, LWIR, millimeter wave, MMW



AF161-103

TITLE: Low Signal to Noise Ratio Radar Technology Investigation

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation and within the AF Component-specific instructions. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws. Please direct questions to the AF SBIR/STTR Contracting Officer, Ms. Gail Nyikon, gail.nyikon@us.af.mil.

OBJECTIVE: Investigate and develop innovative compact long-range, multi-mode, high frequency, low transmitted signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio radar system concepts that will enhance performance, robustness, and survivability of precision terminal guided weapons,

DESCRIPTION: The problems associated with precision terminal guidance of autonomous lock-on-after-launch weapons for military and civilian targets, both stationary and mobile, in high clutter backgrounds, under adverse weather conditions, day/night, and low-light conditions, are some of the outstanding challenges facing the tactical weapons development community today. A radar-based seeker is a good candidate and excellent selection for the stationary and moving target acquisition, track, and aim-point selection for precision terminal guidance applications. Development of a light, compact, high frequency, low energy consumption (low transmitted power), low S/N ratio and low cost radar sensor with high range and Doppler resolutions is a challenging problem for today's radar technology. These interesting radar systems concepts should have a multi-mode (SAR, GMTI, and HRR) radar operational capabilities to search, acquire, and track single and multiple targets. This type of radar sensor will provide a new ability for radar system design and will find a number of applications for weapon seekers and commercial navigation collision avoidance. Optimal reception of coherent (pulsed or CW) radar signals and pulse compression technique are the principles forming the basis of the modern radar design. The antenna and radar waveform designs along with operational bandwidth and signal processing are critical in designing radar systems for a specific radar application, such as smart weapons.

To begin this effort, a trade-off study of various radar concepts will be conducted. A complete innovative radar system concept will be selected, developed, simulated, demonstrated, and compared with conventional radar in term of antenna peak-to-side-lobe ratio, waveform characteristics, transmit power/operational range, average power, range/ Doppler resolution, probability of target detection, and target tracking capabilities.

PHASE I: Survey, develop, and assess a feasibility of innovative radar technology concepts for a range of 5 to 10 km operation with low transmitted power and low S/N. Proposer shall conduct a concept study of potential new compact low cost wideband multi-mode (SAR, GMTI, and HRR) capability and low S/N radar technology that is feasible for precision terminal seeker and weapon network centric development.

PHASE II: Develop a radar system simulation based on the Phase I results. Select an optimal radar system architecture that meets all objective requirements. Radar architecture will be proposed and simulations of the selected full radar system will be used to compare the proposed innovative radar concepts to more traditional radar approaches. A complete radar system prototype based on the simulation outcome will be developed, evaluated and demonstrated in laboratory and outdoor environments.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Design and fabricate a low cost and lightweight/compact full function innovative radar system for a realistic field test and flight demonstration. Transition into Air Force weapon/UAV and commercial (UAV navigation collision avoidance, weather radar, altimeter, etc.) applications.

REFERENCES:

1. Bassem R. Mahafza, Radar Systems Analysis and Design Using MATLAB, Chapman & Hall/CRC 2005.

2. James D. Taylor, Ultra wideband Radar Applications and Design, CRC Press 2012.

3. Phillip E. Pace, Detecting and Classifying Low Probability of Intercept Radar, Artech House 2009.

4. Konstantin A. Lukin, Millimeter Wave Noise Radar Technology, MSMW Symposium Proceeding, 1998, page 94-97.

5. Juergen Sachs, M. Kmec, P. Rauschenbach at al., Ultra-Wideband Pseudo-Noise Radar; Principle of Function, State of the ART, Applications, RTO-MP-SET-120.

KEYWORDS: ultra-wideband radar, low transmitted power radar, diversity radar waveforms, radar signal processing, multimode radar





























AF161-105

TITLE: Sensors for Remote Airfield Assessment

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation and within the AF Component-specific instructions. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws. Please direct questions to the AF SBIR/STTR Contracting Officer, Ms. Gail Nyikon, gail.nyikon@us.af.mil.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a small form factor lightweight sensor(s) that can work with satellite or RPA survey to rapidly assess the the load bearing capability of soil, roads, and runways and clearances, grade, and obstructions to support aircraft operations.

DESCRIPTION: Develop and prove accuracy of a technology or group of technologies to replace the need for hammer driven-dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) assessment of runways or unimproved runways for aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operations.

The goal of this research is a lightweight sensor or set of sensors (array) that can provide the equivalent soil shear strength, moisture content and associated factors to determine the ground or pavement load bearing capacity. The entire sensor and processing suite must fit in less than a small rucksack or pack, be battery operated and require two or less person operation.

Low/no acoustic footprint or other emissions are of prime consideration. The goal is for a two person survey team to determine the soil shear capacity for up to 30 points over a 2,000-foot-long runway in under 2 hours. It is envisioned this sensor (or array of sensors) would be hand carried or droppable from aircraft or small UAS (or quad-copter).

An improved or unimproved runway survey assesses the structural suitability or load bearing capability of an airfield to support aircraft landing, taxi, and takeoff. The survey approach also addresses other factors including the geometric characteristics of an airfield such as: runway length and width, grade, and airfield and airspace obstruction clearances.

The numbers and locations of soil strength tests and samples will vary with the type of airfield, size of airfield, proposed mission of the airfield, number of features, and time available for conducting the tests. Test locations must be chosen wisely and should accurately cover each feature or aspect of the airfield, yet may need to be minimized due to aircraft operations or time constraints. Soil conditions are extremely variable; therefore, as many tests as time and circumstance will permit should be taken.

The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test is the test most commonly used in road and runway design all over the world. There are many methods for estimating CBR from the soil and site-specific parameters (Dave, 1997). The Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) value is being used extensively in several countries for reliable estimation of subgrade CBR value. This test can be used for rapid measurement of in situ strength of pavement layers and subgrades and has been successfully employed for this purpose in South Africa. The DCP was initially developed in South Africa as an in situ pavement evaluation technique for continuous measurement with the depth of pavement layers and subgrade soil parameters. Since, then this device has been used extensively in South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and many other countries, because it is simple, economical, and less time consuming than most other available methods. One- and two-man DCP kits have been fielded with costs from $2 to 3K per kit. It takes 10 to 15 minutes per sample for dirt runways, much longer for paved surfaces, with 20 or more points for runways plus overrun and taxiways. The goal is to reduce a typical 4-hour survey to one hour of less.

Shearing resistance is one of the most important properties that a soil possesses. A soil’s shearing resistance under given conditions is related to its ability to withstand a load. The shearing resistance is especially important in its relation to the supporting strength or bearing capacity of a soil used as a base or subgrade beneath airfield pavements. For military pavement applications, the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) value of a soil is used as a measure of soil strength.

Currently, CBR is determined using a Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) which is an impact device. This large unit represents many operational and logistic challenges. The DCP consists of a 16-mm-diameter stainless steel rod with a cone attached to one end which is driven into the soil by means of an 8 kg sliding hammer which is dropped from a height of 575 mm. The angle of the cone is 60 degrees and the diameter of the base of the cone is 20 mm. Units that test both paved and semi-prepared airfields use 50-inch-long rods, but 36-inch-long rods are available and are adequate for semi-prepared airfield evaluations. Loaded aircraft may affect the soil to depths of 36 inches or more; therefore, it is recommended that DCP tests be conducted to the full depth of the rod. Use of the DCP is a multi-person activity and requires moving the unit up and down every 200 feet (minimum) of the road or runway and back and forth across it to get a useful distribution of points.

PHASE I: Investigate novel sensor technologies for non-impact/noiseless technologies to rapidly determine the geospatial, geotechnical, and grade of improved and unimproved areas to determine suitability for aircraft operation. Demonstrate critical component technology suitability with laboratory or field demonstration.

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate-hand or SUAS deployed sensor array to rapidly assess soil shear strength for CBR down to at least 36 inches with desired goal of 48 inches and soil surface and soil depth moisture content. In laboratory and field demonstration, show direct traceability to traditional DCP or other Air Force-approved survey approaches.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Transition to commercial highway and runway construction, Air Force civil engineering support, Army and Marine Corp mobility and amphibious landing support.

REFERENCES:

1. Sahoo, P.K., Reddy, K.S., “Evaluation of Subgrade Soils Using Dynamic Cone Penetrometer”. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering 384, ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 02, No. 04, August 2009, pp. 384-388 http://cafetinnova.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/02020413.pdf.

2. Bachmann, C.M. et.al.; “Airborne Remote Sensing of Trafficability in the Coastal Zone”, 2009 NRL REVIEW-Remote Sensing, http://www.nrl.navy.mil/content_images/09_Remote_Bachmann.pdf ; http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a569187.pdf.

3. Wende, J; “Predicting Soil Strength with Remote Sensing Data”; Thesis, September 2010; https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/5174?show=full.

4. Engineering Technical Letter 97-9: Criteria and Guidance for C-17 Contingency and Training Operations on Semi-Prepared Airfields; 25 Nov 1997, http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/browse_cat.php?o=34&c=125.

KEYWORDS: hyperspectral, California bearing ratio, dynamic cone penetrometer, remote sensing, ground penetrating radar, acoustic holography



AF161-106

TITLE: Compact SWIR DFOV Optics

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Sensors

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation and within the AF Component-specific instructions. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws. Please direct questions to the AF SBIR/STTR Contracting Officer, Ms. Gail Nyikon, gail.nyikon@us.af.mil.

OBJECTIVE: Develop a near infrared (NIR) and short-wave IR (SWIR) dual-field-of-view (DFOV) optical system compatible with small unmanned aerial system (UAS) gimbals to support day/night imaging and targeting of ground targets.

DESCRIPTION: Small, stabilized gimbals are being developed for emerging small pursuit weapons and air-launched UAS. These 3-to-5-inch diameter gimbals place severe limits on the size and weight of any optical imaging system. Past demonstrations with air-launched air vehicles and weapon sights have used single-FOV lenses, leading to a trade between operator situational awareness and magnification required for positive identification. Mechanical design, weight, and poor MTF plague current COTS optics.

A dual-field-of-view optical system would provide an operator with good situational awareness in a wide-field-of-view (WFOV) and high resolution for target identification in a narrow-field-of-view (NFOV). Zoom lenses have been evaluated in prior program but have issues through the zoom range and have weight and size impacts.

Most standard lenses have been designed for 20-25 micron pixel pitch, and relatively few are available even in single FOV designs for recently-developed small pitch focal plane arrays with 12.5 to 5 micrometer (micron or um) pixels.

Production cost is an important factor since the small, air-launched UAS and weapons are designed for a one/few-time use in an operational setting but may be re-used many times in a CONUS training environment.

The optical system requires full-field resolution of greater 80 cycles/mm and an MTF greater than 50 percent at 40 cycles per millimeter. The optical system is needed for low light capability and needs high (80 percent objective) transmission for visible through SWIR 0.4 – 1.9 micrometers wavelengths.

The optical system needs to accommodate at least two mechanically-switchable spectral filters (IR cut and laser passband). The format should accommodate an image format supporting current 640 x 512 pixel SWIR InGaAs focal planes and the new 1280 x 1024 pixels (or larger 1920 x 1080 HD format) focal planes.

Pixel pitches from 10 micron down to 5 micron for SWIR are anticipated and as small as 2 to 3 micron in the visible. The lens needs at least two selectable fields of view, with an narrow field of view (NFOV) focal length of 50 mm or longer and a wide field of view (WFOV) focal length of one half to one third of the NFOV. The distortion shall be 0.5 percent or better over the full field of view with no vignetting. The band-average spectral transmission shall be 80 percent or higher at f-number 1.4 or faster.

Multiple sensor ports for color-visible/SWIR focal planes will be an option to accommodate focus variations, if the size and weight impact can be minimized. The goal is to not require operator-initiated refocusing to maintain image quality upon field-of-view switch or filter selection, and provide for operator-adjustable (motorized) focus. The lens should provide positive mechanical stops or locks at each FOV and filter position and provide FOV/filter position feedback indications to the weapon of small UAS control system. FOV and filter switching time should be 0.5 seconds or faster.

The design must include optical anti-glare coatings and baffles to prevent objectionable stray light artifacts from natural or man-made light sources outside the FOV.

A variable iris (f/1.4 – f/16) is desirable for weapon mounted sights to accommodate the wide range of conditions from daylight to night operations.

The optical system should be no larger than 42 x 50 mm (W x L) to fit in the smaller gimbals. The optical system has to survive the shock loads present in deployment from a Common Launch Tube (CLT) of approximately 80g and it is desired to have higher shock survival for weapon mounted applications. The lens must operate over an altitude range of 0 to 20,000 feet above sea level.

For gimbal and weapon balance considerations, lightweight approaches are critical. A goal of under 200 grams is ideal for hand launched systems where the entire gimbal payload is under 900 grams including sensors. The lens system environment goal is operation over -40 to +70 degrees C of gimbal interior temperature is required with a goal of -20 to 70 degrees C. The optical system has to operate in the vibration environment of a small propeller-driven UAS with up to 8G peak to peak 0 to 100Hz and operate in rail mounted gun sight applications for full automatic fire with small arms (5.56mm/7.62mm).

PHASE I: Develop a preliminary optical, mechanical and electrical designs. Thermal, electrical and vibration specs will be finalized between the government, the gimbal developer, and lens designers. One proof-of-concept laboratory lens (performance not required in a vibration/g-shock environment or at temperature or altitude extremes) mechanical models are desired for performance evaluation.

PHASE II: Develop, integrate and deliver one engineering qualification prototype and five fully-qualified units. Provide an interface control document and source data to support safety-of-flight requirements. The Phase I and II optics may not utilize any hazardous glasses, substrates or coatings. The prototype unit shall be tested over the temperature and vibration limits to be finalized in Phase I. Provide optical test data (MTF, transmission, distortion etc.) for all six lenses.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Manufacture low-cost dual FOV lenses for rugged weapon, missile, and small UAS application. Apply in manufacturing for machine vision, medical imaging, hostile fire detection, and astronomical/navigation applications.

REFERENCES:

1. http://www.clearalign.com/SWIRlenses.html downloaded on 28 April 2014.

2. http://www.navitar.com/pdf/swir_mtf.pdf downloaded on 28 April 2014.

3. http://www.sensorsinc.com/downloads/SU640CSX.pdf downloaded on 1 May 2014.

4. Dual Resolution Imaging for Metrology Applications, Harding and Gray, SPIE 8839, 883905

5. Low profile optic design for mobile camera using dual freeform reflective lenses, SPIE 6288, 628808.

KEYWORDS: short-wave infrared, optical imaging, optics, SUAS, night vision, weapon sight, unmanned aerial system





AF161-107

TITLE: Integrating the EPIC Hydrocode with MEVA and Endgame Framework

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation and within the AF Component-specific instructions. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws. Please direct questions to the AF SBIR/STTR Contracting Officer, Ms. Gail Nyikon, gail.nyikon@us.af.mil.

OBJECTIVE: Design and implement an EPIC Hydroocde module in the Modular Effectiveness Vulnerability Assessment (MEVA) code. The two codes should be fully linked under the Endgame Framework architecture.

DESCRIPTION: Current lethality tools make use of empirical models that are the result of fitting data to sub-scale test data. This approach is not only expensive but provides for a simplified approach to modeling the lethal effects of munitions that exclude important physical effects. The full ranges of lethal effects are therefore not modeled, thus underestimating the performance of weapons. Until recently it was not possible to integrate more accurate tools into the lethality codes to provide better estimates of the actual weapon effects. However, this is changing. Recent advances in computing speed of desk side computers are now enabling more accurate and detailed calculations to be performed. The calculations that were once performed on the fastest Cray supercomputer 20 years ago can now be performed ten times faster on a modern multi-core PC class computer. This trend shows no sign of abating. There is a desire to take advantage of this modern computing power and increase the fidelity of the models currently used in the Air Force’s Modular Effectiveness Vulnerability Assessment (MEVA) code. Currently, the MEVA lethality and vulnerability software application is used to perform lethality and vulnerability analysis to estimate the effectiveness of Air Force weapon systems. MEVA is built with the Endgame Framework simulation architecture, a 3D modeling and simulation computer application. Currently, when the scenario involves a penetrating warhead, MEVA calls a module that implements empirical relations to estimate the performance of the penetrating warhead. However, the empirical relations that are currently used require extensive test data to calibrate and can only model rigid solid bodies. The EPIC hydrocode has the ability to perform detailed simulations of hard target penetrators and includes non-rigid bodies and the ability to model internal structures, such as the fuze, fuze mount, and explosive fill. A more accurate estimate of probability of kill can be obtained by using more accurate codes such as EPIC. EPIC is an elastic-plastic finite-element based code and with the proper material constitutive models can accurately simulate penetrators to a much more accurately and completely that the current modules in MEVA.

The purpose of the topic is to develop and implement a means to include EPIC as a module in MEVA and other Endgame Framework based applications. The EPIC module must accept inputs from MEVA and then compute the penetrator trajectory and survivability and return these results to MEVA. The EPIC model shall be able to use the target and warhead geometry entered by a use in MEVA and then automatically creates an input deck to run EPIC, which will be packaged in a wrapper and added as a module according to the Endgame Framework development API. Software changes to both MEVA and EPIC may be required to facilitate the integration of the two software applications. The goal is to allow a user to use the more accurate, but more time consuming, EPIC module as a substitute for the less accurate but faster empirical relations when performing lethality and vulnerability calculations in MEVA, or other applications built with the Endgame Framework.

PHASE I: Develop overall software integration design that includes a detailed description of the necessary software components necessary to link EPIC with Endgame Framework for penetration scenarios.

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a fully integrated prototype system that allows realistic EPIC penetration calculations to be performed as part of MEVA lethality calculations.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Develop and demonstrate integrating other types of warhead analysis with Endgame framework and MEVA. These may include EFPs, blast warheads, and fragmenting warheads for examples.

REFERENCES:

1. Endgame Framework (http://www.endgameframework.com/).

2. Numerical Algorithms in a Lagrangian Hydrocode, WL-TR-1997-7039 (www.dtic.mil).

KEYWORDS: penetration, lethality, vulnerability, hydrocode, finite-elements



AF161-108

TITLE: Innovative, Cost-Effective Techniques for Antenna Electronic Beam Steering

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation and within the AF Component-specific instructions. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws. Please direct questions to the AF SBIR/STTR Contracting Officer, Ms. Gail Nyikon, gail.nyikon@us.af.mil.

OBJECTIVE: Investigate low-cost alternatives to steerable antennas for the munitions application.

DESCRIPTION: The performance enhancements afforded by electronically steerable antennas is of high interest to the radar seeker community. Traditionally phase array antennas require beam forming networks with distributed phase shifters or time delay mechanisms and additional control circuits, to perform beam steering that lead to expensive and complicated circuitry not economically feasible for use in small missile radar seekers. Recent breakthroughs in engineered electronic and electromagnetic materials and continuous transverse stub arrays have made agile, reconfigurable apertures possible where the beam-forming function is integrated in to the aperture. These technologies are opening avenues to provide new levels of real-time control of the aperture and performance as well as affordability.

There is a need to investigate innovative beam steering schemes that eliminate traditional beam forming networks and lead to digitally controllable RF apertures for radar seeker. Minimal figures of merit and functionality are frequency control and agility (17 GHz +/- 10 percent or 35GHz +/- 10 percent), wide bandwidth (600 MHz to 1.2GHz) and instantaneous pattern control. Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV) of approximately 7 degrees, Field of Regard (FOR) of approximately +/- 35 degrees in azimuth and elevation with a gain greater than 21dBi and nominal aperture of six inches. An antenna that can possibly meet these requirements and is able to work at 17 GHz in addition to 34 GHz is also of interest but not required. The techniques should be implementable in a small, lightweight package and, at minimum, allow for classical sum and difference mono-pulse beam forming. The technique should be evaluated against factors such as beam forming capability, gain, Size, Weight, Power and Cost (SWAP-C) and radiation characteristics such as FOR, IFOV, beam width, etc.

PHASE I: Study the feasibility of innovative beam-steering techniques and implementation for use in a small radar seeker. Requirements for several antenna concepts should be considered and translated into design specifications. Trade-off analysis and simulation of critical performance parameters is expected during Phase I.

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate the technique through a breadboard antenna and relevant drive electronics. It is expected for AFRL to perform testing of the prototype.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Develop and demonstrate in KHILS anechoic chamber a full-up antenna array with beam-forming network.

REFERENCES:

1. Lee, Jar J.; Wilkinson, Steven R.; Rosen, Robert A.; Krikorian, Kapriel V.; Newberg, Irwin L., "MMW ELECTRONICALLY SCANNED ANTENNA," Patent No. 7061443.

2. Sikina, T.; McKay, D.; Komisarek, K.; Porter, B., "Variably inclined continuous transverse stub-2 antenna," Phased Array Systems and Technology, 2003. IEEE International Symposium on, pp.435,440, 14-17 Oct. 2003.

3. Balanis, Constantine A., “Introduction to Smart Antennas,” Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2007.

4. Hall, P.S.; Gardner, P.; Faraone, A., "Antenna Requirements for Software Defined and Cognitive Radios," Proceedings of the IEEE , vol.100, no.7, pp.2262,2270, July 2012.

5. Ehsan, Negar, “Broadband Microwave Lithographic 3D Components,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, 2010.

KEYWORDS: engineered electronic materials, engineered electromagnetic materials, continuous transverse stub arrays, smart antennas, meta-materials, Software Defined Apertures, SDA





AF161-109

TITLE: Develop Urban Target Cumulative Structural Damage Models

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation and within the AF Component-specific instructions. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws. Please direct questions to the AF SBIR/STTR Contracting Officer, Ms. Gail Nyikon, gail.nyikon@us.af.mil.

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative models that simulate urban target cumulative structural damage caused by multiple weapons.

DESCRIPTION: This topic is in support of today’s next-generation munitions that will attack their target at the same location or at multiple locations in an effort to destroy or functionally kill an urban structure. The objective is to develop an innovative High-Fidelity Physics-Based (HFPB) Fast-Running Model (FRM) that predicts cumulative damage to the structural components of urban targets impacted by multiple weapons. The requirement is to be able to assess the incremental damage to an urban target and its components when subjected to multiple strikes with consideration to airblast, gas pressure, weapon fragment and structural debris loadings, time dependent variable venting, and weapon detonation intervals. Desired FRM outputs include structural component damage (deflection, spall, breach, and/or failure), structural debris mass & velocity distributions, subsequent residual strength (residual capacity), and Collateral Damage Estimation (CDE) data. An incremental definition of component damage to include residual capacity is extremely important for weaponeering multi-layered targets for progressive collapse, and could be exceptionally helpful in planning protection from sequenced terrorist attacks. This new FRM must be tightly integrated with AFRL’s Modular Effectiveness Vulnerability Assessment (MEVA) code to provide seamless transitions between the existing single-strike FRMs and new progressive-damage methodology.

Current requirements specify the need for FRMs that predict the structural damage to Urban Framed and Mass constructed structures subjected to multiple weapon detonations with an overall accuracy of 80 percent or better when compared to actual test data. Blast and fragment loads from current and future weapons are of particular interest. Current single weapon models include the quantification of modeling uncertainty and a representation of the models’ predictive accuracy based on that uncertainty. In cumulative damage models, modeling uncertainty is expected to grow with cumulative damage from multiple weapons. Thus, the cumulative damage models should also reflect cumulative uncertainty when assessing their predictive accuracy.

One of the options for defeating urban structures is collapse due to sequential damage from multiple weapons at multiple locations. Walls, columns, beams, and slabs not completely destroyed during a strike could be sufficiently damaged during subsequent strikes to promote structural collapse. The residual capacity of the structural components under repeated weapon loading, including impulse loading from structural debris and secondary airblast, is of interest here. These residual capacity outputs will be fed into a progressive collapse model to determine the structural integrity of the building.

These FRM(s) should address both air-backed and soil-backed walls, roofs, floors, columns, and beams including soil-structure interaction effects. In addition, the FRM(s) should be able to handle the different room configurations typically found in urban-type structures. The resulting FRM(s) will need to be integrated into the AFRL MEVA architecture and have execution times similar to current FRM(s). The multiple weapon loads (blast and fragment), location, orientation, detonation timing, along with the structural component information will be provided as input from MEVA to the FRM(s). In addition, the proposer should propose a limited set of test experiments that can be performed to validate proposer's algorithms. If necessary, government test facilities and or test data will be provided if requested and within the government’s funding constraints. If required, government HPC facilities will be provided to the proposer upon request.

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of using HFPB models to simulate the effects of multiple weapon detonations in one room of a typical RC framed structure with masonry walls and multiple weapon detonations in multiple rooms of a RC framed structure with masonry walls. Demonstrate the feasibility of developing FRMs that capture the important characteristics of the problem.

PHASE II: Using HFPB models that can simulate the effects of multiple weapon detonations on the structural components of urban structures, develop innovative FRM(s) that capture the important characteristics of the problem for the desired parameter space. Validate the HFPB models with experimental data and quantify the accuracy of the FRMs. Implement FRMs in AFRL’s MEVA and standalone codes, and support code verification efforts.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Finish development of the FRM(s) covering the parameter space not covered in this development. Adapt the FRMs for use by other services and for use in anti-terrorism activities where model predictions must be survival conservative as opposed to kill conservative for weaponeering solutions.

REFERENCES:

1. Krawinkler, H., and Nassar, A., 1992. Seismic design based on ductility and cumulative damage demands and capacities, Nonlinear Seismic Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings, edited by H. Krawinkler and P. Fajfar, Elsevier Applied Science, pp. 95-104.

2. Crawford, J.E., and H.J. Choi, "Development of Methods and Tools Pertaining to Reducing the Risks of Building Collapse," Proceedings of the International Workshop on Structures Response to Impact and Blast, November 2009, Haifa, Israel.

3. Lloyd, G.L., T. Hasselman, and J.M. Magallanes, "Fast Running Model for the Residual Capacity of Bomb-Damaged Steel Columns," Proceedings of the 80th DDESB Explosives Safety Seminar, Palm Springs, CA, August 12-14th, 2008.

4. Anderson, Mark C., W. Gan, and T. K. Hasselman, "Statistical Analysis of Modeling Uncertainty and Predictive Accuracy for Nonlinear Finite Element Models," Proceedings of the 69th S & V Symposium, Minneapolis/St. Paul,


Minnesota, October 12-16, 1998.

KEYWORDS: structural response, MOUT, urban targets, weapon lethality, target vulnerability, engineering models, fast running models, finite-element models, debris modeling, cumulative structural damage





AF161-110

TITLE: Ultra-Wideband Structurally Integrated Antenna Architectures

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation and within the AF Component-specific instructions. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws. Please direct questions to the AF SBIR/STTR Contracting Officer, Ms. Gail Nyikon, gail.nyikon@us.af.mil.

OBJECTIVE: Design ultra-wideband structurally integrated antennas suitable for the next generation of radar seekers. These seekers will require a very large field of regard while maintaining beam-shaping capabilities.

DESCRIPTION: Future radar seekers will be software defined and capable of performing multiple missions. These seekers will be expected to operate cooperatively in hostile environments and meet the demanding cost, size, weight and power (C-SWaP) constraints of weapons for fifth- and sixth-generation platforms.

As the need for engaging targets in difficult environments grows, ultra-wideband and structurally integrated antenna architectures have gained interest. However, these antenna architectures must conform to the limited size and overall outer-mold line of the weapon platforms. Next-generation seekers must perform frequency agile radar and communication waveforms, which will require ultra-wideband apertures. These structurally integrated and conformal antenna arrays may also allow for an extended field of regard as compared to traditional nose mounted seekers. Also, by utilizing the surface area, which would typically be larger than the missile cross-sectional area, for the conformal aperture could allow for additional antenna gain and thereby longer acquisition ranges.

To address the challenges of these antenna architectures, it is of interest to study novel conformal ultra-wideband antenna elements as integrated directly into the munition structure.

PHASE I: The Phase I effort will look at the feasibility and attainable performance of an ultra-wideband structurally integrated architecture for use in a small radar seeker. Identification of technology barriers, trade-off analysis and simulation of critical performance parameters is expected during Phase I.

PHASE II: Demonstrate the antenna architecture through simulation and develop representative breadboard. It is expected for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to obtain delivery of the breadboard for independent assessment.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Mature and develop a brassboard prototype. It is expected for AFRL to obtain delivery of the prototype for independent assessment.

REFERENCES:

1. Hansen, R. C., et al. "Conformal antenna array design handbook." NASA STI/Recon Technical Report N 82 (1981): 21483.

2. Josefsson, Lars, and Patrik Persson. Conformal array antenna theory and design. Vol. 29. John wiley & sons, 2006.

KEYWORDS: ultra-wideband, antenna, RF seeker, conformal





AF161-111

TITLE: Manufacturability Improvements for Highly Integrated Monolithic Exploding Foil Initiator

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation and within the AF Component-specific instructions. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws. Please direct questions to the AF SBIR/STTR Contracting Officer, Ms. Gail Nyikon, gail.nyikon@us.af.mil.

OBJECTIVE: Maturation and transition of a highly-integrated monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) which focuses on enhanced performance, survivability and manufacturability, while complimenting long-life, high-G, and high reliability requirements

DESCRIPTION: Conventionally, most slapper detonators are based on a non-integrated design where a pre-fabricated EFI/slapper chip is sandwiched between a chip spacer and a barrel. This assembly is then soldered onto a header with a 2-pin feed-through. A problem associated with such modular slapper detonators is the potential for unreliable operation due to failure of the electrical connections between the EFI/slapper chip and the header. Conventionally, electrical connections are formed by soldering. However, it is important to perform this soldering at low temperature to avoid degradation of the dielectric overcoat from which the flyer is generated by the vaporization of the bridge of the EFI. Failure of the solder connections due to materials aging and/or manufacturing defects can lead to unreliable operation of conventional slapper-detonator designs.

There is a need for a new approach to slapper detonator design that avoids such problems. A monolithic slapper detonator (monolithic exploding foil initiator) can be expected to yield greater reliability of operation and higher yields of devices meeting performance specifications compared to previous modular designs. An additional benefit of a monolithic device is that it represents a configuration that is more readily survivable in high-g-force environments.

As a solution to the need described above, Direct Header Deposition Slapper (DHD) technology has been developed by the Department of Energy (DoE), via Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The DHD, a type of monolithic exploding foil initiator, is an adaptation of a chip slapper which focuses on enhanced manufacturability while complimenting long-life, high-G, and high reliability requirements. Upon completion of prototyping, DHD shows considerable promise, but further development is needed in order to mature the technology and also enable reduction in the manufacturing process.

The intent of this topic is to address the need to mature the manufacturing processes and technology prototyped with the DHD, and consider other technology to produce a monolithic EFI that is highly integrated with enhanced high-g survivability that may be implemented into DoD weapon systems.

Proposers are encouraged to demonstrate how their technology and processes can address enhanced manufacturability of a highly-integrated monolithic EFI, while meeting EFI performance and high-G survivability requirements. The ideal candidate should have expertise in all domains. Technologies and processes proposed should be able to show significant gains in manufacturability over existing solutions. A highly integrated solution is desired. Proposers should leverage existing technologies with minimal risk while optimizing performance. Ideally the deliverable should be able to transition as a drop in replacement for existing systems and support legacy systems, as well as emerging ones.

PHASE I: Demonstrate an improved process utilizing DHD technology to manufacture monolithic EFIs that are readily integrated into DoD weapons. Define materials, manufacturing steps, and production costs. Use a standard fireset and PDV to characterize the performance of prototype EFIs with the same bridge specification as a conventional EFI.

PHASE II: Refine the improved manufacturing process developed in Phase I and demonstrate its performance at larger (production) scale. Use a standard fireset and PDV to validate the performance of a statistically significant sample of EFIs produced using the new processes. Conduct and report the results of an explosive threshold test series on a standard material. Conduct high-G shock loading experiments to assess survivability at relevant conditions. Quantify cost savings and reliability improvements.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Mature and demonstrate the ability to fabricate prototypes that meet all performance and environmental requirements in order to transition as a drop in replacement for existing systems and support legacy systems, as well as emerging ones.

REFERENCES:

1. Welle, E., et al. (2012). U.S. Patent No. 8,291,824. Washington, DC: U.S.

2. Nance, C. (2009). U.S. Patent No. 7,571,679. Washington, DC: U.S.

KEYWORDS: exploding foil initiator, monolithic exploding foil initiator, EFI, direct header deposition, DHD, chip slapper





AF161-112

TITLE: Armament Life-cycle Status Monitoring Device

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation and within the AF Component-specific instructions. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws. Please direct questions to the AF SBIR/STTR Contracting Officer, Ms. Gail Nyikon, gail.nyikon@us.af.mil.

OBJECTIVE: External non-invasive collection of environmental data on armament without modification. Self-powered RFID-like system with status sensor/analysis suite, memory/reader feeding logistics databases. Max G loading, min/max temperature data desirable.

DESCRIPTION: Most armament, both bomb and missile systems, are acquired as "wooden" rounds, intended to be stored indefinitely until retrieved for use. Though many have the capability to have a built-in-test performed to determine system status, few have any environmental monitoring capability to determine the number of hours spent in storage, on the flightline, on the aircraft, or in the air. This topic is looking for solutions to non-invasively collect this data without system modification. An RFID like system that is self-powered, has a sensor/analysis suite sophisticated enough to determine the status, and memory/reader system capable of feeding that information into the maintenance/logistics database, is sought. In addition to status information, additional information such as max G loading, min/max temperature, and such, would be useful in determining RM&A and life-cycle risks.

The technical challenges are threefold: 1) packaging the device small enough to be non-invasive from an aerodynamic and human factors perspective, 2) be robust enough to last the entire lifecycle of the weapon being monitored, and 3) require low enough power requirements for its operation to be self-sufficient. Ideally the device should be capable of storing the entire environmental history in on-board memory. Due to the varied geometries of the armament on which the device could be placed, it would be desirable for the device to be flexible enough to conform to various shapes. MEMS-based circuits, capable of sensing the vibrational environment, are expected for the sensor portion of the device though other concepts would be entertained. The analysis portion of the system should be capable of processing the sensor data and determining system status such as in storage, in flight, active/open-air storage, and ground handling. On-board data logs should include the amount of time spent in each status with a desired accuracy to within 10 minutes. Maximum and minimum values (such as the mentioned G-load, temperature) during defined events should be logged as well. Desired performance includes recording events with differing classes of G-loads, such as distinction between low loads/impacts (e.g., less than 2G), intermediate loads/impacts (e.g. greater than 2G, less than 10G), and high loads/impacts (e.g. great then 10G) with a false call rate of less than 5 percent. Desired accuracy for temperature measurements should be within 1 degree F. Ideally the data could be down loaded wirelessly similar to data from RFID tags. While no specific format has been specified for the data from the sensors, it must be readily configurable into a generic format that is readable by any data capture system. RMA requirements will be driven by the need to ensure the device is not destroyed during normal operational use, including the storage, maintenance, and flight environments. The goal is to ensure risks for weapons that are that are carried multiple times are identified and managed.

PHASE I: Determine options for self-contained, self-powered external sensor suite to meet desired performance. Primary sensor is expected to use vibrational environment to determine operational system state. Ancillary sensors pertinent to system reliability, e.g. thermal sensors, are of interest. Report should describe potential hardware modules, on-board analysis algorithms, and data management approach.

PHASE II: Primary objective of phase is to produce and demonstrate a working prototype. Sensors and analysis package should be able to determine when a weapon is in storage, transportation/maintenance, or airborne. Memory management and data transfer into a maintenance device should be demonstrated. Cost strategy for incorporation into weapons maintenance concepts should be presented.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Identification of fielding and application paths, to include program sponsors, should be identified. Clear user requirements should be developed and fielding courses of action generated. Finalization of design for sponsor applications accomplished. Verify design operational performance.

REFERENCES:

1. An electroformed CMOS integrated angular rate sensor, S. Chang, M. Chia, P. Castillo-Borelley, W. Higdon, Q. Jiang, J. Johnson, L. Obedier, M. Putty, Q. Shi, D. Sparks, S. Zarabadi, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical Volume 229, 15 June 2015.

2. A 0.5 mm2 integrated capacitive vibration sensor with sub-10 zF/rt-Hz noise floor, S.V. Iyer, Hasnain Lakdawala, R.S. Sinh, E.J. Zacher, D.M. Gauge, IC Mech. Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA DOI: 10.1109/CICC.2005.1568616 Conference: Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 2005. Proceedings of the IEEE 2005

KEYWORDS: environmental monitoring, reliability study, logistics monitoring



AF161-113

TITLE: Direct Measurement of Protection System Breakdown and Corrosion Processes within Aircraft Structures

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Materials/Processes

OBJECTIVE: Develop sensors and monitoring systems for direct detection of coating protection system breakdown for aircraft structures.

DESCRIPTION: An embedded corrosion monitoring system suitable for aircraft would ideally be capable of detecting the loss of barrier and inhibiting properties of coatings (MIL-PRF-23377, MIL-PRF-85285) at airframe structural joints. The prototype would demonstrate feasibility of the basic measurement technique using a simple aluminum alloy test assembly to simulate a lap joint with an aircraft coating (primer MIL-PRF-23377, Class C2, and topcoat MIL-PRF-85285) tested in accelerated atmospheric corrosion test (ASTM G85-A5, or similar).

The direct measurement system should measure coating system condition and the onset of coating degradation within multi-layered aircraft structures. The breadboard prototype fabricated in Phase I system should detect coating system condition, and should be able of measuring percent inhibitor loss of 20 percent with a threshold of 20 percent with an accuracy of 10 percent of actual value, and capable of detecting a 5 mm long scribe or coating crack along a lap joint. The embedded corrosion monitoring system will need to be primarily compatible with conventional coatings and aluminum alloy structures, but future extensibility to specialty materials and composite structures of more advanced aircraft would be advantageous. The measurement system will produce direct measurements of coating condition and corrosion rate at coating defects. System intelligence will be built in to automate data processing for generation of actionable information indicating the extent and location of coating breakdown. The system will support automated coating condition diagnostics for anticipating inspection and maintenance actions. The system must be highly reliable and not create new inherent failure points on the structure. It must not present an additional maintenance burden, nor result in an unacceptable level of false positives.

The system should be designed to eventually integrate with maintenance or health monitoring network systems, to support Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+). CBM+ is the application and integration of appropriate processes, technologies, and knowledge-based capabilities to achieve the target availability, reliability, and operation and support costs of DoD systems and components across their life cycle. Ideally, the system will not require aircraft power for long-term operation (5 - 8 years), and will support wireless data transmission. The embedded corrosion monitoring system including sensors, supporting electronics, power sources, and physical and electrical interfaces will be lightweight, small size, and cost effective to meet qualification and cost/benefit requirements.

PHASE I: Establish a preliminary design and build a prototype embedded corrosion measurement system for aircraft structures. Measurement system should be able to detect a seeded preexisting coating defect and an applied defect including coating crack and scribe. The system should be capable of measuring inhibitor loss and detecting scribes and coating cracks as per description.

PHASE II: Complete a prototype sensor and monitoring system for aircraft applications. Establish physical, electrical, and network communication interfaces needed for aircraft integration. Develop the data acquisition system, data processing algorithms, and user interface to demonstrate system performance in long-term accelerated corrosion tests and outdoor exposures using simulated air force structural component. Deliver prototype system for use in AFRL testing in accelerated corrosion test chamber.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Identification of fielding and application paths, to include program sponsors, should be identified. Clear user requirements should be developed and fielding courses of action generated. Finalization of design for sponsor applications accomplished.

REFERENCES:

1. Herzberg, E. Cost of Corrosion to DoD. (2010). http://www.sae.org/events/dod/presentations/2010/B3EricHerzberg.pdf.

2. M.E. Ibrahim, C.M. Scala, A.R. Wilson, V-T. Truong, and D.P. Edwards, Advanced Applications of Smart Materials Research for the Enhancement of Australian Defence Capability, 2009. http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA515424.

3. Qing, X. P. et al. Advanced Self-Sufficient Structural Health Monitoring. In Structural Health Monitoring 2006: Proceedings of the Third European Workshop (DEStech Publications, Inc, 2006).

4. Demo, J., Friedersdorf, F., Andrews, C. & Putic, M. Wireless corrosion monitoring for evaluation of aircraft structural health. In Aerospace Conference, 2012 IEEE 1–10 (2012).

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