Aecl/biol 365: Exam 1 Review

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AECL/BIOL 365: Exam 1 Review
1. is considered to be the father of modern taxonomy because he invented the use of a two part naming system called .
2. Birds are considered to be a group because they include their most recent common ancestor and all its descendents.
3. The fins of dolphins and the forelegs of a dog are considered to be what type of structures?
4. What rule states that the extremities of endotherms vary inversely with body size?
5. occurs when segments of a population become separated and then diversify in separate places.
6. are a group of extinct fish that had a bony carapace but lacked paired fins. These organisms were present in the or the age of fishes.
7. Class appeared in the Silurian and have a skeleton made of cartilage but don’t have a swim bladder whereas class have a bony skeleton and a swim bladder. Both classes are extant.
8. is a transitional organism between fish and tetrapods that was notable for having fins with wrists.
9. The first tetrapods or amphibians were dominant in the .
10. Order includes frogs and toads or amphibians with metamorphic lifestyles and strong back legs for jumping.
11. The is a structure that broke the tie to water for tetrapods. This structure contains the for removing nitrogenous waste and the for storing nutrients.
12. Turtles are or organisms without any skull fenestrae. Reptiles and birds are

or organisms with two skull fenestrae, while mammals are .
13. The or stem reptiles were lizard like insect eaters with an amphibian like skull.
14. Vertebrates within the order Testudines are notable for having a dorsal and a ventral .
15. Order includes the two species of tuatara.
16. Order includes bird hipped reptiles from the Mesozoic who were often the prey of Theropod members of the order .

17. was the transitional organism between reptiles and birds whose fossil was found in a German quarry in 1861. This organism had fused clavacles or a .

18. Birds and mammals are both or organisms that maintain their body temperature through the production of their own heat.
19. Mammals are notable for having two sets of teeth or and for having

jaw articulation.
20. What mammalian ancestor was the size of a large dog, had heterodont dentition, and had a dentary bone composing most of the lower jaw?
21. bone initially starts off as cartelage and is later ossified into bone during development. bone has no cartelage precursor.
22. There are three types of muscle: , , and .
23. muscle is neither striated or branched. This type of muscle is also slow acting and is involuntarily controlled.
24. A muscle fiber is composed of thousands of , and the fiber is surrounded by a membrane called the .
25. All vertebrates have a ciruculatory system, while many invertebrates have an

circulatory system.
26. respiration is common in the Plethodontid salamanders because they have no lungs.
27. What four traits must an organism have to be considered a chordate?

28. What four traits are required for natural selection to occur?

29. Describe fenestrae.

30. Why aren’t reptiles considered to be a monophyletic group?

31. Describe the four hypotheses of flight discussed in class.

32. Name and describe the two types of skeletons in vertebrates. Then describe the changes that occurred in the skeletal system starting with fish and moving up the vertebrate phylogeny.

33. Describe the development of the circulatory system in the vertebrates.

34. Describe the flow through respiration system in birds.

35. Describe how the posture of a cat vs. a lizard affects how it respirates during locomotion.

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