Acid etching: process of altering tooth surfaces by applying acids such as phosphoric acid.
Anterior teeth: The incisors and canines.
Bitewing radiograph: intraoral film that shows only the crown portions of opposing teeth in the biting position on the same film.
Bleaching: the use of chemical oxidizing agents to lighten discolored teeth.
Buccal: The facial surface facing the cheek in posterior teeth.
Canines: The third tooth from the midline located at the “corner” of the mouth.
Caries: the infectious disease that progressively destroys tooth substance, beginning on the enamel by demineralization or on the cementum
Complete Denture: a removable dental prosthesis that replaces the entire dentition and associated structures of the maxilla or mandible.
Composite resin: resinous filling material formed by a reaction of resin monomers and inorganic fillers such as silicate or quartz.
Crown: the portion of a tooth covered by enamel or exposed in the mouth.
Crown restoration: a restoration that covers the entire anatomic crown of the tooth.
Dental Amalgam: a dental filling material composed of mercury and metals - silver, copper, zinc, and tin. An amalgam is a combination of mercury and a metal.
Dentin: the part of a tooth under the enamel.
Diastema: A space between the teeth
Distal: The surface of a tooth away from the midline.
Edentulous: without teeth
Enamel: The hard outer coating of a tooth that is exposed in the mouth
Facial: The surface of teeth closest to the face.
Incisors: The first two teeth adjacent to the midline
Incisal: The chewing or biting surface of an anterior tooth.
Inlay/onlay: a laboratory fabricated restoration that covers one, two, or three surfaces of the prepared tooth and is bonded or cemented in the tooth.
Interproximal space: The area between adjacent tooth surfaces.
Labial: The facial surfaces close to the lips of anterior teeth.
Lingual: The surface closest to the tongue of mandibular teeth.
Malocclusion: An abnormal or malpositioned relationship of the maxillary and mandibular teeth.
Class I: normal tooth relationship
Class II relationship when the mandible is retruded
Class III relationship when the anterior teeth are edge-to-edge.
Mandible: The bone holding the lower part of the dentition that is capable of moving
Maxilla: The upper part of the dentition which is a part of the skull.
Mesial: The surface of a tooth toward the midline.
Midline: A line dividing the right and left side of the body.
Mixed dentition: When both primary and permanent teeth are present in the mouth.
Molars: The sixth, seventh and eighth (wisdom tooth) from the midline.
Occlusal: The chewing surface of posterior teeth.
Overbite: The vertical distance or overlap between the incisal edges of the anterior teeth.
Overjet: The horizontal distance or overlap between the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth.
Palatal: The lingual surface of maxillary teeth
Palate: The bone on the roof of the mouth.
Panoramic radiograph: a film in which a continuous image of both maxillary and mandibular dental arches and associated structures is obtained.
Periodontium: The bone and tissue surrounding a tooth.
Permanent dentition: The 32 secondary teeth or “adult teeth”.
Posterior teeth: The premolars and molars.
Premolars: The fourth and fifth teeth from the midline.
Primary dentition: The first dentition of 20 teeth commonly called “baby teeth”.
Proximal: The tooth surfaces adjacent to each other
Pulp: The hollow inside of a tooth containing nerves and blood vessels
Radiograph: visible image produced on a radiation-sensitive film emulsion by exposing the film to radiation and chemicals so that a negative is produced. Also called an x-ray film, radiogram, roentgenogram, and roentgenograph.
Root: The portion of the tooth covered by cementum or imbedded in bone
Succedaneous: the term for the permanent teeth that replace primary teeth of the same type
TMJ: The joint between the mandible and the skull.
Veneer: an overlay or thin layer of a composite resin or ceramic used to cover the facial surface of a tooth.