Abductor Digiti Minimi

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Abductor Digiti Minimi: Pisiform & tendon of flex. Carpi ulnaris, proximal phalanx of 5th digit, abd. 5th finger, ulnar N (C8,T1)

Abductor Hallucis: Calcaneous, Medial side of proximal phalanx of great toe, abd great toe, med. plantar N (L4-5)

Abductor Pollicis Brevis: abd/assists opposition of thumb, median N (C8-T1)

Abductor Pollicis Longus: abd/ext. thumb & abd. wrist, Radial N (C6-8)

Adductor Brevis: adduct thigh, obturator N (L3,4)

Adductor Hallucis: adduct big toe, lat plantar N (S1,2)

Adductor Longus: ant. body of pubis, med. 1/3 of med. lip of linea aspera of femur, add/flex thigh, assists med. rotation, obturator N (L3-4)

Adductor Magnus: inferior ramus of pubis/ischial tuberosity, hamstring: linea aspera of femur, Adductor: add tubercle of femuradd/ext. thigh,

obturator N (adductor) Tibial div of Sciatic (hamstring) (L2-4)

Adductor Pollicis: add/flex thumb, ulnar N (C8-T1)

Anconeus: ext. forearm & stabilize elbow, radial N (C6-8)

Biceps Brachii: Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula, radial tuberosity, bicipital aponeurosis, flexes & supinates forearm, Musculocutaneous N

Biceps Femoris: flex/lat rotate knee, ext thigh, tibial/fibular sciatic NN (L5-S2)

Brachialis: Distal ½ of ant. surface of humerus, Coronoid process & tuberosity of ulna, primary flexor of forearm, Musculocutaneous N (C5-6)

Brachioradialis: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus, styloid process of radius, flex forearm, assists pro/supination of forearm, Radial N

Coracobrachialis: tip of coracoid process of scapula, middle medial shaft of humerus, flexion/add. of humerus, musculocutaneous N (C5-7)

Coccygeus: ischial spine & sacrospinous lig, coccyx & lower sacrum, supports viscera, closes pelvic outlet, S4,5 NN

Cricoarytenoid: cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage, adduction of vocal fold, laryngeal vagus N

Deltoid: acromial end of clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula, Deltoid tuberosity of humerus, flex, abd, extend, lat/med rotate arm, Axillary

Diaphragm: L1-3, lower 6 costal cart, xiphoid process & sternum, form central tendon, flattens to increase height of thorax, phrenic N

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis: ext. wrist & assists abd. of hand, radial N (C6-7)

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus: ext. wrist & abd. hand, radial N (C6-7)

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris: extends wrist & assists adduction of hand, interosseus radial N (C6-8)

Extensor Digiti Minimi: ext. 5th digit, radial N (C6-8)

Extensor Digitorum: ext. fingers & wrist, deep radial N (C6-8)

Extensor Digitorum Brevis: ext metatarsalphalangeal joints, deep fibular N (L5-S2)

Extensor Digitorum Longus: ext phalanges, deep fibular N (L4-S1)

Extensor Hallucis Brevis: ext metatarsalphalangeal joints, deep fibular N (L5-S2)

Extensor Hallucis Longus: ext/dorsiflex big toe, deep fibular N (L4-S1)

Extensor Indicis: ext. index finger @ metacarpalphalanx joint, post. interosseus radial N (C6-8)

Extensor Pollicis Brevis: ext. thumb & abd. hand, radial N (C6-7)

Extensor Pollicis Longus: ext. interphalangeal joints & assists ext. of metacarpophalangeal joints in thumb, also assists abd. & ext. of wrist &

lat. thumb rotation, post. interosseus radial N (C6-8)

External Oblique: ext lower 8 ribs, ant iliac crest, linea alba, compress abdominal cavity, flex/rotate vert column, ventral rami of T7-T12

Flexor Carpi Radialis: flex wrist & abduction hand, median N (C6-7)

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris: flexes/adducts wrist, ulnar N (C7-8)

Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis (foot): Metatarsal V, Proximal Phalanx of 5th Digit flex MP joint of toe 5, lat. plantar N (S1-2)

Flexor Digitorum Brevis: flex proximal phalanges, med plantar N (L4,5)

Flexor Digitorum Longus: flex distal phalanges of toes, tibial N (L5, S1)

Flexor Digitorum Profundus: ant. surface of distal phalanges of fingers 2-5, flex wrist, 2nd-5th MP, PIP, DIP joints, ulnar N (medial ½) &

median N (lateral ½)

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis: sides of middle phalanges 2-5, flex. Wrist, 2nd-5th MP and PIP joint, median N (C7-T1)

Flexor Hallucis Brevis: flex metatarsalphalangeal joint of big toe, med plantar N (L4-S1)

Flexor Hallucis Longus: flex big toe, plantar flex, tibial N (L5-S2)

Flexor Pollicis Brevis: abd/assists opposition of thumb, median N (C8-T1)

Flexor Pollicis Longus: flex thumb, ant. Interosseus median N (C8-T1)

Geniohyoid: inferior mental spine, ant hyoid bone, pulls hyoid sup/ant, C1-Hypoglossal NN

Gluteus Maximus: iliac crest, scrum, coccyx, iliotibial tract of fascia lata, linea aspera and gluteal tuberosity of femur, extends thigh, laterally

rotates thight, Inf. gluteal N (L5-S2)

Gluteus Medius: Posterior iliac crest, lateral surface between posterior and anterior gluteal lines, Greater trochanter of femur, Abducts thigh,

medially rotates thigh Superior Gluteal N (L5-S2)

Gluteus Minimus: Lateral surface of ilium between inferior and anterior Gluteal lines, Greater trochanter of femur, abducts thigh, medially

rotates thigh, Superior Gluteal N (L5-S2)

Gracilis: add. thigh & flex knee, obturator N (L3,4)

Gastrocnemius: superior posterior surfaces of lateral/medial condyles, calcaneous (via calcaneal tendon) plantar flex foot, flex leg, Tibial N

Hyoglossus: hyoid bone, inf/lat tongue, depress tongue, draw side down, hypoglossal N

Iliacus: ant/inf iliac spine & iliac crest, lesser trochanter of femur, flex hip, femoral (L2-4)

Iliocostalis Cervicis, Lumborum, Thoracis: tendon from posterior part of iliac crest posterior sacrum, lumbar spinous processes, angles of

ribs, TP of cervical vertebrae, extend neck and vertebral column, maintain posture, cervical, thoracic, lumbar spinal NN

Infraspinatous: Infraspinous fossa of scapula, greater tubercle of humerus, adduct/laterally rotate arm, Suprascapular N (C5, C6)

Intercostals: external=inspiration, internal=expiration, innermost=expirationprimary breathing mm, Intercostal NN

Internal Oblique: lat ½ of inguinal lig, ant 2/3 of iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia, cart of last 3 ribs, compress abdominal contents, let

bend/rotate vert column, ventral rami of T7-T12 & L1

Interossei: lat plantar N (S1,2)

Interosseous: deep branch of ulnar N (C8-T1)

Interspinalis: Extends vertebral column, rotates vertebral column to the opposite side

Intertransversarii: Lateral flexion of vertebral column

Latissimus Dorsi: SP of T7-T12, ribs 8-12, thoracolumbar fascia& iliac crest, intertubercular groove of humerus, Ext., add., & med. rotates

arm; prime mover of arm ext, Thoracodorsal N (C6-C8)

Levator Ani: inner ischial spine & pelvic surface of pubis, inner coccyx, forms floor of pelvic cavity, S4 & inf rectal N

Levator Costarum: elevates ribs during inhalation

Levator Scapulae: TPs of C1-C4, superior part of medial border of scapula, elevates scapula, inferiorly rotates scapula,C3/C4 and dorsal

scapular N

Longissimus Capitis, Cervicis, Thoracis: tendon from posterior part of iliac crest, posterior sacrum, lumbar SP, mastoid process of temporal

bone and TP of cervical/thoracic vertebrae, extends neck, vertebral column, rotates head, maintains posture Cervical and Thoracic Spinal NN

Lumbricals (hand): tendons of flex. digit. profundus, dorsal tendons on fingers 2-5, flex. of 2nd-5th MP, extend 2-5th PIP, Median N

(lat lumb 1,2) Ulnar N (med lumb 3,4)

Lumbricals (foot): tendons of flex. digit. longus m, tendons of ext. digit. longus, flex MP extends DIP/PIP of toes 2-5, Medial plantar

(1st lumbrical) 1,2) Lateral plantar (2nd-4th lumbricals)

Multifidis: Sacrum and TP of each vert, SP of vertslocated 2-4 segments superior to origin, extends vertebral column, rotates vertebral column

towards opposite side, Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar Spinal NN

Oblique Capitis inferior: SP of atlas, TP of Atlas, Turns head to the same side, Suboccipital N

Oblique Capitis Superior: TP of Atlas, Inferior Nuchal line of occipital bone, Turns head to the same side, Suboccipital N

Obturator Internus: Laterally rotates thigh

Opponens Digiti Minimi: opposes pinky w/ thumb, ulnar N (C8-T1)

Opponens Pollicis: flexor retinaculum & hamate bone, proximal phalanx of 5th finger, rotates thumb into opposition w/ fingers, ulnar N (C8)

Palmaris Brevis: corrugates skin of palm, ulnar N (C8)

Palmaris Longus: flex wrist, median N (C6-8)

Pectineus: pectineal line of pubis, pectineal line of femur, flex & add. femur @ hip, femoral N (L2-4) or obturator N (L2-L4)

Pectoralis Major: Ventral surface of sternum down to 7th rib, sternal half of clavicle (medial), costal cart. of ribs 2-6, Lat. lip of intertubercular

groove of humerus, Add. & med. rotates arm, clavicular head flexes humerus, sternal head ext. humerus, assists elevation of

thorax, Med./lat. pectoral NN (C5-C8, T1)

Pectoralis Minor: draws scapula ant & down, draws rib cage sup, Medial pectoral N (C8, T1)

Peroneus(fib) Brevis: midlateral shaft of fibula, base of 5th metatarsal, plantar flex/eversion of foot, superficial fibular N (L4-S1)

Peroneus(fib) Longus: Base of metatarsal I; medial cuneiform bone plantar flex & eversion of foot, superficial fibular N (L4-S1)

Peroneus(fib) Tertius: lower 1/3 of ant. fibula & interosseus membrane, dorsal surface of base of 5th metatarsal, dorsiflex./eversion of foot,

deep fibular N (L4-S1)

Piriformis: Anterolateral surface of sacrum, Greater trochanter of Femur, laterally rotates thigh, N to Piriformis S1-S2

Plantaris: lat. supracondylar ridge of femur & oblique popliteal lig., post calcaneous, plantar flex of foot, tibial N (L4-S1)

Popliteus: flex/med rotates knee, tibial N (L4-S1) O In A N

Pronator Quadratus: distal ¼ of ulna, distal ¼ of radius, pronates forearm, median N

Pronator Teres: above med. epicondyle of humerus, med. side of coronoid process of ulna, middle of lat. surface of radius, pronates forearm

& assists flexing elbow, Median N (C6-7)

Psoas Major: TP of L1-5, body of T12 & L1-5, lesser trochanter of femur, flex hip & vert column, ventral rami of L2-4

Quadratus Femoris: Upper part of lat. border of ischial tuberosity, Trochanteric crest of femur, Lat. rotates thigh @ hip joint, Branch from

sacral plexus (L5 & S1)

Quadratus Lumborum: iliolumbar lig & post iliac crest, inf last rib & TP of L1-L4, flex lumbar vert column lat, ventral rami of T12 & L1-3

Quadratus Plantae: lat. side of flex. digit. longus tendon, flex. of terminal phalanges of 2nd-5th toes, lat. plantar N (S1-2)

Rectus Abdominis: crest of pubis/pubic symphysis, cart of ribs 5-7 & xiphoid process, flex vert column, ant primary rami of 7-12 intercostalN

Rectus Capitis Posterior Major: SP of axis, Inf nuchal line of occipital bone, extends head/neck, Suboccipital N

Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor: Posterior tubercle of atlas, inf nuchal line of occipital bone, extends head/neck, Suboccipital NN

Rectus Femoris: ant/inf. Iliac spine, quad tendon to patella, patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity, ext. leg @ knee @ flex thigh @ hip, femoral

Rhomboid Major: SP of T2-T5, med. border of scapula superior to spine, Add., retracts, elevates, & inf rotates scapula, Dorsal scapular N

Rhomboid Minor: SPs of C7 & T1, med. border of scapula superior to spine, elevate, retract (add), inf rotate scapula, Dorsal scapular N (C5)

Rotatores: TP of each vertebra, SP of immediately superior verts, extends vertebral column, rotates vertebral column toward opposite side,

Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar spinal NN

Scalene: TP of C2-7, upper 1st & 2nd rib, lat flex neck @ that side & elevates ribs 1-2, ventral rami of C4-C8

Semispinalis Capitis, Cervicis: TP of C4-T12, Occipital bone/SP of cervical/thoracic verts, Bilat: extends vertebral column and neck, unilat:

laterally flex vertebral column/neck, Cervical and thoracic spinal NN

Semimembranosus: flex knee, ext thigh, tibial sciatic N (L5-S2)

Semitendinosus: Ischial tuberosity, proximal medial surface of tibia, flex/med. rotates leg @ knee & ext. thigh @ hip, tibial portion of sciatic

Serratus Anterior: Ribs 1-8, ant/superior margins, medial border of scapula, ant surface, prime mover in scapula protraction, sup

rotate/stabalize scapula, Long thoracic N (C5-C7)

Serratus Posterior Inferior: SP of T11-L2, Inf. borders of ribs 8-12, Depresses ribs during exhale, Thoracic Spinal NN

Serratus Posterior Superior: SP C7-T3, Lat Borders of ribs 2-5, Elevates ribs during inhale, Thoracic Spinal NN

Soleus: Plantar flex, tibial N (S1,2)

Spinalis Capitis/Cervicis/Thoracis: Lumbar SP (thoracic) and C7 SP (cervical), SP of axis and thoracic vert, extends neck and vertebral

column; maintains posture, Cervical and thoracic spinal NN

Splenius Capitis/Cervicis: Ligamentum Nuchae, Occipital bone and mastoid process of temporal bone, Unilat: turns head to same side, Bilat:

extends head/neck, Cervical Spinal NN

Sternocleidomastoid: Manubrium and sternal end of clavicle, mastoid process, lat flex/rotate head, flex neck, spinal accessory CNXI

Subclavius: Stabilizes and depresses clavicle, N to Subclavius C5-C6

Subscapularis: Subscapular fossa of scapula, Lesser tubercle of humerus, Med. rotates arm, Upper/lower subscapular NN (C5, C6)

Superior Gemellus: Ischial spine/tuberosity, Obturator internus tendon, Laterally rotates thigh, N to Obturator internus

Supinator: Supinate forearm, radial N (C6) Subcostal M: elevating ribs during inhalation, spans 3 ribs

Supraspinatus: Supraspinous fossa of scapula, Greater tubercle of humerus, Abd. arm Suprascapular N (C5, C6)

Tensor Fasciae Latae: assists thigh motion & stabilizes hip, sup. gluteal N (L4-S1)

Teres Major: Inf lateral border/inferior angle of scapula, lesser tubercle and intertubercular groove of humerus, extend, med rotate, add arm,

Lower subscapular N

Teres Minor: Upper dorsal lateral border of scapula, sup to teres major, greater tubercle of humerus, Add/ Lat rotate arm, Axillary N (C5)

Tibialis Anterior: Lateral condyle and proximal shaft of tibia, interosseous memb, metatarsal I and first cuneiform dorsiflex/inversion of foot,

Deep fibular N (L4-S1)

Tibialis Posterior: Fibula, Tibia, Interosseous membrane, Metatarsal II-IV; navicular/cuboid bone, all cuneiforms, plantar flex & inversion of

foot, tibial N (L5, S1)

Transverse Abdominis: Lat inguinal lig, iliac crest, cart of ribs 7-12, thoracolumbar fascia, abdominal apaneurosis to linea alba, constrict

abdomen & support viscera, ventral rami of T7-T12 & L1

Transverse Thoracis: inner sternum, xiphoid process, inner costal cart of ribs 2-6, draw ventral rib down, intercostal NN

Trapezius: Superior nuchal line of occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, SP C7-T12, Lat. 1/3 of clavicle; acromion process & spine of scapula,

elevate, superiorly rotate/retract/depress scapula, Accessory N CNXI

Triceps Brachii: LH: inferior lateral border and inferior angle of scapula, olecranon process of ulna, ext/add arm, Radial N (C7-8)

Vastus Intermedius: extend knee, femoral N (L2-4) Vastus Lateralis: extend knee, femoral N (L2-4)

Vastus Medialis: intertrochanteric line/linea aspera of femur, Quadriceps tendon to patella/patellar lig tuberosity, extend leg @ knee,

Femoral N

ANTERIOR SCALENE: bends cerv part of vert column forward and lat and assists in elevation of 1st rib; vent rami of C4-C6

CORRUGATOR SUPERCILLII: Pulls eyebrows inferiorly and medially; creates verticle wrinkles above nose; Facial Nerve

DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS: draws angle of mouth Inferiorly and Laterally; facial N (CNVII)

DIGASTRIC: Depresses mandible, elevates hyoid bone, Anterior belly: (Mandibular CNV3); posterior: Facial N CNVII

EXTERNAL PHARYNGEAL CONSTRICTORS (superior, middle, inferior): constricts pharynx in sequence to force bolus into esophagus;

FRONTALIS: moves scalp, eyebrows; wrinkles skin of forehead; facial N (CNVII)

INFRAHYOID AND SUPRAHYOID: depressor/ elevator of larynx & hyoid

LATERAL PTERYGOID: Protracts mandible; produces side to side movement of mandible, Mandibular division of Trigeminal CNV3

MASSETER: elevates mandible and protracts it; prime mover of jaw closure: Mandibular Division of Trigeminal N CNV3

MEDIAL PTERYGOID: Elevates and protracts mandible; produces side-to-side movement of mandible; Mandibular division of Trigeminal

MENTALIS: elevates and protrudes low lip while wrinkling skin of chin; facial N (CNVII)

NASALIS: Compresses bridge and depresses tip of nose elevates corner of nostrils; facial N (CNVII)

OMOHYIOD: depresses hyoid bone; fixes hyoid bone during opening of the mouth, Ansa Cervicalis N

ORBICULARIS ORIS: closes & protrudes lips & compresses lips against teeth, purses lips; facial N (CNVII)

PLATYSMA: draws down the low lip and angle of mouth, tenses skin of neck and helps depress mandible; cervical branch of facial N

POSTERIOR SCALENE: flex neck, when 1st rib is flexed, elevate 1st and 2nd ribs during forced inhalation when neck is flexed; Cervical Spinal

PROCERUS: Moves and wrinkles nose; Facial N CNVII

RISORIUS: draws corner of lip laterally; tenses lips; synergist of zygomaticus MM; facial

SALPINGOPHARYNGEUS: elevate larynx and pharynx; Vagus N (CN X) viabranches of pharyngeal plexus

STERNOHYOID: depresses hyoid; C1-C3 of ansa cervicalis

STERNOTHYROID: depresses thyroid cartilage and larynx; ansa cervicalis

STYLOHYOID: Elevates hyoid bone; Facial N CNVII

STYLOPHARYNGEUS: elevates pharynx and larynx; Glossopharyngeal N Via branches of pharyngeal plexus (CNIX)

superior innermost; branches of pharyngeal plexus (CNX Vagus N)

TEMPORALIS: Elevates and Retracts mandible; Mandibular division of Trigeminal Nerve (CNV3)

THYROHYIOD depresses hyoid bone and elevates thyroid cartilage of larynx, Hypoglossal N CNXII

ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR: draws angle of mouth up and out; facial N (CNVII)


1. I Olfactory N: Action special sensory=smell Exit cribiform plate Location receptors of olfactory epithelium (mucosa) Olfaction 1.Olfactory Epithelium: lines roof of nasal cavity, nasal septum, and medial wall of superior conchae; Olfactory Hairs: pick up air born particles

2. Olfactory bulb: olfactory N fibers synapse with mitral cells(axons of these form the olfactory tract) 3.Olfactory Tract: relays nerve impulse to olfactory cortex, hypothalamus & limbic system **only sense that can reach cerebral cortex without first going through the thalamus(goes to ethmoidal centers of brain instead)

2. II Optic N: Action special sensory=sight Exits optic canal Enters optic disc Location retina of eye Sight later

3. III Oculomotor N: Action motor=mm that constrict pupil; lens of eye; raise upper eyelid; turn eye Exit sup orbital fissure Location mesencephalon, ciliary ganglion; all mm of eye EXCEPT sup oblique & lat rectus

4. IV Trochlear N: Action motor=sup oblique m(down & out, cheater m) Exit sup. orbital fissure Location midbrain

5. V Trigeminal N: Exit sup orbital fissure; Three Braches *also supplies Dura Mater

1.Opthalmic N: Action: Sensory Exits: superior orbital fissure Location: Trigeminal ganglion Branches

1. Nasociliary: (eyeball sensory) divides I.infratrochlear N: eyelids, conjuncitiva of lower eyelid, skin of nose II.ethmoidal N: sinuses

2. Frontal N: supratrochlear N: skin of forehead II.supraorbital: frontal sinuses, conjunctiva of upper eyelid

3. Lacrimal N: Lacrimal gland, conjuctiva and skin of upper eyelid

2. Maxillary N: Action: Sensory Exit: Foramen rotundum Location Trigeminal ganglion Major Cutaneous Branches:

1.Infraorbital N Supplies cheek, lower lid, upper teeth (Infraorbital> Superior Alveolar)

3.Mandibular N: Action: Sensory & motor Exit: Foramen ovale Location: Pons Major Cutaneous Branches

1. Buccal N gingiva

2. Inferior Alveolar N runs through mandibular foramen; supplies mm of mastication (temporalis, masseter, med&lat Ptyergoid)

mental N skin of chin & lower lip, lower teeth 3. Lingual N: tongue, sensory

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