A: Griswold v. Connecticut

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This landmark Supreme Court case involved a law first passed in 1879, and upheld on two prior occasions, in 1943 and 1961. Just a few years after the 1961 case, the named defendant, along with Dr. C. Lee Buxton, opened an abortion clinic. Both defendants were arrested and convicted; the conviction was upheld until it was overturned by the Supreme Court in 1965. The case had great influence on later cases, especially Eisenstadt v. Baird in 1972 and most notably Roe v. Wade in 1973. FTP, name this Supreme Court case, in which the Court ruled that the Constitution guaranteed a right to privacy.
A: Griswold v. Connecticut

FTPE, name these other Supreme Court cases during the Warren era.

10: This 1966 case mandated that suspects must be informed of their rights to attorney and against self-incrimination, and gave rise to its namesake "warning."

A: Miranda v. Arizona

10: This 1962 case mandated that official school prayers are unconstitutional in public schools.
A: Engel v. Vitale

10: This landmark 1957 case declared that obscenity was not a constitutionally protected form of expression; the namesake "test" suggested by the Justices was superseded by the Burger court in 1973's Miller v. California.
A: Roth v. United States

James Cook Brown designed Loglan to test it. One of its creators believed that according to it, Hopi Indians could understand the theory of relativity more easily than Europeans. An example of this relationship is in Newspeak, in which the word "freedom" does not exist. Also known as the linguistic relativity hypothesis, it is named after two Yale scientists. FTP name this linguistic theory, which states that grammatical structures in language influence one's understanding of the world.

A: Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

FTPE name these terms from linguistics.

10: This is a process in which a back vowel's pronunciation is changed to that of a front vowel and shares its name with a pair of dots over a vowel resembling a diacritic.

A: Germanic umlaut

10: This major change in the English language occurred between 1200-1600 and resulted in a major change in pronunciation. It accounts for the silent 'e' in the English language.
A: Great Vowel Shift

10: This set of 3 laws describe the change from a Proto-Indo-European language to a Germanic language.
A: Grimm's Laws

He fought several wars in Moesia and Illyricum, culminating in several hard-fought battles against his erstwhile colleague at Cibalae, Campus Ardiensis, the Hellespont, and Chrysopolis. That colleague, who had only become a target because of his defeat of Maximin Daia, was captured after Chrysopolis and executed a year later. He claimed descent from Claudius Gothicus, which set the religious tone for his life for much of his early life. It was only in 312, at Saxa Rubra, that he showed any sign of not remaining faithful to the Unconquered Sun. FTP name this Roman Emperor, the victor at the Pons Milvius following his view of a flaming cross and the words "In hoc signo vinces" and the founder of the Eastern Roman Empire.

A: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantine I the Great (accept either number or title)

FTPE name these other Roman Emperors of the Tetrarchy, which was ended by Constantine I by his victory over Licinius.

10: This Illyrian Emperor founded the Tetrarchy before retiring to his massive villa at Salonae.

A: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus

10: This man, Diocletian's colleague as Augustus, fathered a pretender to the throne who lost to Constantine at the Milvian Bridge. His daughter Fausta ended up marrying Constantine.
A: Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius

10: Diocletian's successor as Augustus of the East, this man campaigned in Mesopotamia victoriously against the new Sasanian dynasty, but ended up repressing the Christians and was apparently struck by some really nasty form of bowel cancer in return.
A: Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus

In Michaelis-Menten kinetics, it is represented as the product of the concentrations of the enzyme and substrate divided by the Michaelis constant. Hammond's postulate states that its structure is most similar to the the structure of the species that is closest to it in energy. Due to its high energy and low stability it is always the highest point of a 2-d reaction coordinate diagram. In endothermic reactions, it resembles the products, while in exothermic reactions it resembles the reactants. FTP name this state of a chemical reaction that is the intermediate between the products and reactants.

A: Transition or Activated state (accept Enzyme-Substrate complex during the first sentence)

Answer these questions about kinetics FTPE:
10: The rate of a reaction can be sped up by the use of these chemicals that lower the activation energy.
A: Catalyst

10: The dependence of the rate constant on temperature and the activation energy is given by this equation that was named after a Swedish chemist.
A: Arrhenius equation

10: The rate constant can also be derived using this law, which states that the rate constant is proportional to the concentrations of the reactants each raised to a power.
A: Law of Mass Action

Bea Sorenson arrives to the central town the same day as the main character, but unlike that character Sorenson is fascinated by it and she decides to stay and become a maid, although tragically both she and her son Olaf die of typhoid later on. The protagonist’s husband begins an affair with the neurotic hypochondriac Maud Dryer after his marriage begins to deteriorate due partly to the protagonist's own affair with Erik Valborg. The husband, Dr. Will Kennicott, is saddened when his wife leaves for Washington D.C., but she promises him that she'll come back someday. Ending with Carol Milford's return and acceptance of Gopher Prairie, FTP, name this book ridiculing the small-town life by Sinclair Lewis.

A: Main Street

You know what's coming. Identify these Sinclair Lewis novels from plot descriptions FTPE.

10: The title partner of a real-estate firm lives in the fictional town of Zenith, whose biggest virtue is conformity and whose religion is boosterism.

A: Babbitt

10: This novel ends with the title character praying for the USA to be a "moral nation" while at the same time checking out a hot choir girl's fine legs.
A: Elmer Gantry

10: The title doctor in this novel is faced with an outbreak of Bubonic plague on a Caribbean island, which claims his first wife's life.
A: Arrowsmith

The circumstances behind its composition aren't well known, though it was probably composed in Vienna in 1783. It influenced jazz musician Dave Brubeck to write a similarly named song on his 1959 album Time Out. It is set to an allegretto tempo, though the heavy use of staccato distinguishes the melody. The piece was written following a popular trend of its day to imitate the sound of Janissary bands. FTP, name this famous Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composition that, despite its name, would most likely not be heard in Constantinople.

A: Rondo alla Turca (accept Turkish Rondo, Turkish March, Piano Sonata No. 11 in A major, K. 331, Piano Sonata No. 11 in A major, K. 331 Movement 3, or other clear knowledge equivalents)

FTPE name these other Mozart works.

10: Perhaps Mozart's most famous opera, this work is an adaptation of the story of Don Juan.

A: Don Giovanni

10: This opera is nearly, if not as famous as Don Giovanni, and contains characters including the Queen of the Night and Papageno.
A: The Magic Flute (Accept Die Zauberflöte)

10: It is thought that Mozart named this piece after Victoire Jenamy.
A: Jeunehomme (accept Piano Concerto Number 9 in E-flat Major and K271)

Minor characters in this work include three boarders and a charwoman. Published in 1913 in German as Die Verwandlung [Dee Fair-vand-loong], some details of this work were said to have been lost in translation, famously prompting Vladimir Nabokov to draw some scientifically-appropriate sketches. The sister in this work likes to play the violin. The head clerk himself visited the protagonist's apartment when he was 15 minutes late to work. The main character eventually dies from having a festering apple lodged in his back. Gregor Samsa's namesake transformation into a gigantic insect is the subject of, FTP, which novella by Franz Kafka?

A: The Metamorphosis

FTPE, answer these questions about other Kafka works:

10: In this work, Josef K. is arrested and subjected to the namesake judicial proceedings for an unspecified crime.

A: The Trial

10: This novel ends in mid-sentence because Kafka died of tuberculosis before he could ever finish it. It concerns the life of land surveyor K. and his attempts to talk to the mysterious people in charge of the town and its mysterious namesake building.
A: The Castle

10: Franz Kafka's incomplete first novel, this work is most famous for its first chapter - a short story named "The Stoker". Kafka titled it "The Man Who Disappeared", but his friend Max Brod titled it with a "k".
A: Amerika

Growing up as a fisherman’s son in Bar Harbor Maine, this man received a thousand-year-old Scottish coin in 1975 and quickly amassed a great fortune by investing money gained from selling the coin. His wedding party served as a ruse to allow him to take possession of the Phoenix Gate, which he used to travel back in time and send himself the coin, making him his own benefactor. In 1994, he had Castle Wyvern airlifted from Scotland and placed atop his personal skyscraper, thereby awakening the Manhattan Clan from their thousand year stone sleep. FTP, Jonathan Frakes provided the voice for this primary antagonist of the Disney animated series “Gargoyles”.

A: David Xanatos

Gargoyles was part of The Disney Afternoon. FTPE, name these other Disney Afternoon programs.

10: Named for its characters, who were primarily anthropomorphic waterfowl, name this series in which Uncle Scrooge and his niece and nephews “might solve a mystery, or rewrite history.”

A: DuckTales

10: After DuckTales: The Movie, flopped in theaters, 1995’s A Goofy Movie dropped several ties with this series which inspired it. Name this show, which first introduced the character of Max Goof.
A: Goof Troop

10: After purchasing this show from Nickelodeon, Disney created “brand-spanking new” episodes which saw the characters moving on to middle school. Name this series in which the protagonist moves from Bloatsburg to Bluffington, befriends Skeeter Valentine, and becomes infatuated with Patty Mayonnaise.
A: Doug

For much of the earliest parts of the dynasty, they were in modern Azerbaijan, descended partly from the Emperors of Trebizond and partly from Turkic and Iranian tribesmen. They were supported during the early years by the Red Heads, who helped them smash all of their rivals in the first ten years after Ismail I's capture of Tabriz. The Red Heads were turned to fighting amongst themselves after the defeat at Chaldiran. Still, the dynasty managed to limp on for another two hundred years until the advent of Nadir Shah. FTP name this Persian dynasty, which first made Shi'ism the Iranian national religion.

A: Safavid dynasty

FTPE name these things about an unfortunate Persian ruler.

10: This vast empire including both Persia and the Central Asian steppe was powerful around the beginning of the thirteenth century and was founded by Anush Tigin.

A: Khwarezmian Empire

10: This last of the Shahs of Khwarezm was defeated by the Mongol hordes in 1220 and 1221 and forced to flee to a small island in the Caspian Sea where he died.
A: Ala ad-Din Muhammad II (prompt on Muhammad or equivalents)

10: This first Khagan commanded the Mongols during the invasion. He united the Mongoloid tribes into a single fighting force and fought against the Kara-khitai.
A: Genghis Khan (accept Temujin and pronunciation variants)

After their initial production, only 2% of the initial batch survive the tests of positive and negative selection, while the other 98% undergo apoptosis. The regulatory or suppressor subtype, when activated, acts as an immunosuppressant, in order to protect from autoimmunity. The memory variant are antigen-specific and when re-exposed to their particular antigen expand rapidly. Of the other four classes of these cells, the helper variety of these cells, when activated, secrete cytokines, signaling compounds important in the immune response. FTP, name this class of lymphocytes who derive their letter name from the fact that they are produced in the thymus.

A: T cell

FTPE, name these other cells important to the body's immune response.

10: These cells take their name from the fact that they are produced in the bone marrow. Their primary function is to release antibodies, which "tag" antigens for phagocytes.

A: B cell

10: These lymphocytes derive their name from the fact that they do not need to recognize a particular antigen before "killing" it.
A: Natural-killer cell

10: These cells are the most numerous of white blood cells, and respond to bacterial or fungal infections. Using chemotaxis, they migrate to a site of infection and "kill" antigens using phagocytosis.
A: Neutrophil

Opponents of this branch called themselves misnagdim, and the most prominent misnagdim was arguably Vilna Gaon. Members of this sect believe that the actions of individuals can have a unique effect on divine will and focus on strengthening one's personal communication with God. Its original tenets were formed by Ba'al Shem Tov, a famous Polish mystic and healer, in the early 18th century. Rabbis of this sect wear distinctive headdresses known as kolpik or spodik. FTP, name this controversial branch of Judaism most well known for its mystic elements, especially the study of the Kabbalah.

A: Hasidism (accept variants)

FTPE, name these Jewish days of worship.

10: This holiday celebrates the triumph of Esther in foiling the plans of Haman.

A: Purim

10: This day marks the beginning of a new year and is celebrated with the blowing of a ram's horn.
A: Rosh Hashanah

10: This annual Jewish fast day, occurring in either July or August, has been called the "saddest day in Jewish history."
A: Tisha B'Av or the Ninth of Av (accept equivalents)

It is scientifically expressed in terms of the Hapke parameters, which describe its variation with phase angle. The directional-hemispherical type is referred to as the "black-sky" form of this property. Calculated using Kirchoff’s law of thermal radiation, it is defined, in the “Bond” sense, as the fraction of the power of electromagnetic radiation that a surfaces scatters diffusely. Enceladus has the highest one in the solar system, at over 99%. Earth’s is about 30% and the moon's is 12%, while fresh snow is 60% and fresh asphalt is 4%. FTP, what is this measure of the reflectivity of an object?

A: Albedo

Name these bright stars, FTPE:

10: This dog star is second to the sun in terms of apparent magnitude.

A: Sirius

10: This is the brightest star in the constellation Orion. Although it has a Bayer designation of beta, it is still the sixth brightest star in the night sky.
A: Rigel

10: The brightest star of the constellation Aquila, it shares its name with the protagonist of Assassin's Creed, who is asked by a fighting tutor to show his students "what it is to wield the blade."
A: Altair

It was presented to the National Convention less than four months after the title event occurred. The artist claimed to have visited the figure the day before the event, explaining why a green rug, sheets, and a wooden packing case are included in the work. The subject lies in a resting position with a soft light illuminating his face and arms , which lack signs of the skin disease which assailed him. His right hand lies at his side holding a pen while in his left a note with his assassin's name, Charlotte Corday, is illuminated by a harsh light. FTP, name this work by Jacques-Louis David which portrays the murder of a French Revolutionary.

A: Death of Marat

FTPE identify these other David works.

10: In this painting, David depicts the titular Roman triplets swearing to defend their homeland from the Curiatii, also triplets, from Alba Longa.

A: Oath of the Horatii

10: Of the numerous figures in this work, only the titular figure’s main disciples, Crito and Plato, are composed as their master prepares to drink hemlock.
A: The Death of Socrates

10: The painting depicts Notre Dame cathedral in 1804, as the title figure (who later appointed David court painter) is crowned by Pope Pius VII.
A: The Coronation of Napoleon in Notre Dame

The English traveler Sir Politic Would-Be and his wife frequently pop in and out of this play, offering the title character participation in various schemes and generally being perfect models of the "idiot tourist". Several attempts at falsification by that title character either fail to pan out or are discovered, the last one, pretending he has died, being what eventually gets him punished by the Avocatori. FTP name this play about a rich Venetian gentleman who plays tricks on those who want his inheritance, written by Ben Jonson.

A: Volpone

FTPE name these things about other Jonson plays.

10: The title character in this play is a servant named Face, who teams up with a prostitute and a quack to hustle money out of rich idiots.

A: The Alchemist

10: Like “Volpone”, this play popularized by David Garrick and featuring the merchant Kitely ties up all of the loose ends in court at the end.
A: Every Man in His Humour

10: Sharing its title with a Jonathan Swift work, this play talks about the namesake squire, who is in pursuit of the hand of Audrey Turfe.
A: A Tale of a Tub

Unlike Machiavelli, his work, "The Education of a Christian Prince", written sixteen years before "The Prince", instructed Carlos I to treat his subjects benevolently and to be taught in a well rounded manner to avoid being a source of oppression. Carlos didn't get the memo, though, because his Diet at Worms attacked Martin Luther's new Reformation movement, which may have irked this fellow, a fellow supporter of the Reformation. However, he and Luther eventually split over the issue of free will. FTP name this Dutch humanist author of "The Praise of Folly".

A: Desiderius Erasmus

FTPE name these things about the Reformation and the wars surrounding it.

10: This conflict between the eponymous serf-like people and the Habsburg imperial forces saw the catastrophic defeat of their communistic sect at Frankenhausen.

A: Peasant's War (accept reasonable alternatives)

10: This noble organization was established not only in opposition to the peasants but also to the counter-Reformatory Habsburg imperials.
A: Schmalkaldic League (accept League of Schmalkald)

10: Beginning with the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, this conflict was fought between the Guise family, the King of France himself, and Henri le Grand de Navarre. It ended with Henri of Navarre seizing the French throne.
A: Eighth War of Religion (accept War of the Three Henrys, prompt on War of Religion)

Before assuming the position for which he is most famous, he was an important advisor to Umar ibn Khattab, and he also held the title of Chief Judge of Medina. This man was the fourth caliph according to Sunni traditions. He converted to Islam when he was only a child, and he became arguably the second person to follow the teachings of Muhammad. FTP, who is this husband of Muhammad's daughter Fatima, father to the only bloodline left from Muhammad and the primary martyr of Shia Islam?

A: Ali ibn Ali Talib

FTPE, name these other notable contemporaries of Muhammad.

10: The first of the Rashidun caliphs, this man was a close friend to Muhammad throughout his life.

A: Abu Bakr as-Sadiq

10: Married to Muhammad in middle age, this beloved wife of The Prophet was the first to convert to Islam and died during the Year of Sorrow.
A: Khadijah bint Khuwaylid

10: This leader of the Quraish and husband to Hind was one of Muhammed's primary opponents but converted once Mecca fell to the Muslims.
A: Abu Sufyan ibn Harad

The gun design that was the subject of the proceedings was widely used during the First World War, and some evidence suggests that the purpose of the incident was to hide the development of that artillery piece, the 75. The main evidence was found by an Alsatian cleaning lady in the trash bin of the German military attache Max von Schwartzkoppen. That evidence had actually been written by Major Walsin Esterhazy, and not by this scandal's namesake. FTP name this political scandal of the 1890s which saw a French Jew wrongfully convicted of treason.

A: Dreyfus­ affair

Answer these questions about a novelist who supported Dreyfus, FTPE.

10: This man fled to England after sending an open letter to President Felix Faure. He returned after hearing that Dreyfus' trial was going to be reviewed.

A: Emile Zola

10: This is Zola's letter that first exposed the Dreyfus affair to the public.
A: J'accuse

10: J'accuse was published on the front page of this newspaper run by Ernest Vaughan and George Clemenceau in 1898.
A: L'Aurore (accept The Dawn)

Before being occupied by the Romans, it was the capital of the Nabataean civilization. One of its most famous structures, the Treasury, is so called because of a legend that tells of bandits hiding riches in the large urn atop the second level. Although he had never seen it, English poet John William Burgon famously described it in one of his sonnets, writing "Match me such marvel save in Eastern clime/A rose-red city half as old as time." FTP, identify this group of buildings carved out of solid rock, located in southern Jordan between the Dead Sea and Gulf of Aqaba.

A: Petra

Identify these other World Heritage Sites, FTPE:

10: Sharing part of its name with the country it is located in, this ancient city encircled by a great stone wall is one of the oldest structures in southern Africa.

A: Great Zimbabwe (prompt on Zimbabwe)

10: Prospering most during the Classic period from about 200 to 850 C.E., this Mayan city in what is now northeastern Guatemala was one of the largest in the empire.
A: Tikal

10: This outcropping of rock rises some 1300 feet high from the Judean Desert near the western shore of the Dead Sea. In 66 B.C.E., Jewish zealots captured the fortress from the Romans and held off the Roman army for seven years before finally killing themselves rather than being taken prisoner by the Romans.
A: Masada

Captain Sole uses this character's name as an alias in Kazantzakis' "The Odyssey: A Modern Retelling." Peter, a goatherd, is interrupted several times by this man during a retelling of the lovesick Chrysostom's death. He mistakes a flock of sheep for an army and kills seven sheep before a pair of shepherds throw stones at him, knocking out several of his teeth. His love interest is constantly mentioned throughout his adventures but never appears as a physical character. Riding on his slow and faithful horse, Rocinante, he rides around Spain in search of grand, knightly adventures. FTP, identify this tragicomic hero from La Mancha who is accompanied by his squire, Sancho Panza, in a novel by Miguel de Cervantes.

A: Don Quixote

Name some works influenced by "Don Quixote," FTPE:

10: Prince Myshkin, the title character of this 1868 Dostoevsky novel, was, according to Dostoevsky himself, modelled after Don Quixote.

A: The Idiot

10: Parson Yorick's horse is named Rocinante and Uncle Toby has touches of "Cervantic humour" in this sprawling Laurence Sterne novel.
A: The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman

10: The gluttonous protagonist of this Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by John O'Toole, Ignatius J. Reilly, is described as a modern Don Quixote.
A: A Confederacy of Dunces

One way to induce it in photons is to shine a laser at a crystal and hope that that causes one photon to decay into two. Einstein mocked it by calling it "spooky action at a distance." Measurements of one particle can instantaneously affect another, but information cannot be transmitted using it; however, it still has uses in quantum cryptography and quantum computers. FTP, name this quantum phenomena in which two or more particles have a single quantum state.

A: Quantum entanglement

FTPE, name these things related to quantum computers.

10: These are the most basic unit of storage in a quantum computer.

A: Qubit (accept Qubits)

10: This is the combination of two or more eigenstates. When measured it collapses into one of those states.
A: Quantum superposition

10: This device can store information in qubits and combine qubits into a superposition.
A: Quantum bus

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