4. המשולש הסאב-אוקסיפיטלי Posterior cervical muscles



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4. המשולש הסאב-אוקסיפיטלי
Posterior cervical muscles

(from superficial to deep)



Trapezius innervated by C.N. XI

Splenius capitis Innervation is by the spinal nerves near it

Levator scapulae innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve

Longissimus capitis innervated by the dorsal rami of nearby spinal nerves

Semispinalis capitis innervated by dorsal rami of adjacent spinal nerves
The suboccipital triangle
The sides of the triangle are:


These four muscles are all supplied by the suboccipital nerve

(dorsal ramus of C1)



Obliquus capitis inferior

Obliquus capitis superior

Rectus capitis posterior major

Rectus capitis posterior minor

The greater (C2) and third (C3) occipital nerves

They should come into view on their way to supply the skin

of the posterior scalp, piercing through the muscles.
Vertebral artery

It rises through the foramina transversaria in the cervical vertebrae


Nuchal ligament


Cervical joints and ligaments

Held by

Atlanto-occipital joint

Anterior and posterior antlanto-occipital membranes

Tectorial membrane

Atlantoaxial joint

Alar ligaments

Cruciate ligament (cruciform ligament)

Transverse ligament of atlas

Superior and inferior longitudinal bands


5. העין
רקע היסטולוגי - להיזכר בחומר של קורס היסטולוגיה...

Extraocular muscles


C.N. IV



Superior oblique
Inferior oblique


C.N.



III

They all originate on the common tendinous ring surrounding the optic canal


Superior rectus

Inferior rectus

M
C.N.

VI
edial rectus


Lateral rectus
Medial check ligament

Lateral check ligament
Vasculature of the eye
(Internal carotid)

Ophthalmic artery

Central artery of retina

Supraorbital

supratrochlear

Lacrimal

Dorsal nasal

Short/long Post.Ciliaries

P
Veins: Superior/Inferior ophthalmic veins
ost/Ant Ethmoidal


Anterior ciliary

(maxillary artery) – infraorbital

(cavernous sinus)
Nerves of the eye

cranial nerves Optic (II) Oculomotor (III) Trochlear (IV) Abducens (VI)

Trigeminal nerve (V)

Ophthalmic branch

Frontal

Nasociliary

lacrimal

Supraorbital

Supratrochlea


Ciliary gan.

Ciliary Short\Long

Post. Ant. Ethmoidal

Infratrochlear






Accessory structures of the eye

Lacrimal gland, Lacrimal ducts, Conjunctival sac, Lacrimal lake, Lacrimal papilla, Lacrimal punctum Lacrimal canaliculi, Lacrimal sac
Eyelids (palpebrae) Tarsal plates,Ttarsal glands, Medial and lateral palpebral ligaments,

Orbicularis oculi muscle, levator palpebrae superioris muscle

6. החלל הטמפורלי, החלל התת-טמפורלי והמפרק הטמפורומנדיבולרי
Contents of the temporal fossa



The infratemporal fossa
Muscles

Medial pterygoid

Lateral pterygoid muscle
Vasculature of the infratemporal fossa

שני החלקים הראשונים)) Maxillary artery





Nerves of the infratemporal fossa
Mandibular nerve (V3)





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