2 Female students: Tuesday: 8: 00-8: 50 Objectives: Students at the end of the year should be able to know: Ovarian and Uterine Cycles

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Basic Information:

Course Title: 123 Anat. (Embryology)

Credit hours: 2 hours

Contact hours: 1) Male students:

Group A: Tuesday: 8:00-8:50

Group B: Tuesday: 9:00-9:50

2) Female students:

Tuesday: 8:00-8:50
Students at the end of the year should be able to know:

Ovarian and Uterine Cycles

  • Female hormones and organs involved in their secretion.

  • Follicular development and characteristics, primary and secondary follicles.

  • Ovulation with especial emphasis on stigma, LH surge, corona radiate and zona pellucida.

  • Corpus luteum, hormones secreted by it and changes occur in it with and without pregnancy.

  • Menstrual cycle and its phases, changes occur during luteal phase after fertilization.

  • Transportation of gametes, oocyte and sperm transport, phases of reflex ejaculation.

  • Maturation of sperms with emphasis on capacitation.

  • Viability of gametes, survival period for oocytes and sperms before fertilization.

  • Anovulation and sperm count.


  • Male and female gametes

  • Meiosis and its importance, normal and abnormal Gametogenesis. First and second meiotic divisions and changes occur in chromosomes during these divisions.

  • Spermatogenesis, primary and secondary spermatocytes, transformation of spermatogonia into a mature sperm.

  • Oogenesis, pre and postnatal maturation of oocytes. Primary and secondary oocytes, first and second polar bodies.

  • Comparison of gametes, chromosomal and other differences in male and female gametes.

  • In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

Fertilization and Implantation

  • Fertilization and its phases, zona reaction and changes occur in the plasma membrane.

  • Completion of second meiotic division and formation of male and female pronuclei.

  • Completion of implantation and differentiation of trophoblast into cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast.

  • Cleavage of zygote, formation of blastomeres and morula.

  • Formation of blastocyst, trophoblast and embryoblast.

  • Extrauterine implantation, placenta previa and inhibition of implantation.

Bilaminar and Trilaminar Discs

  • Formation of amniotic cavity, disc and yolk sac with description of layers of bilaminar embryonic disc.

  • Development of chorionic sac and formation of extraembryonic somatic and splanchnic mesoderm.

  • Process of gastrulation and description of three germ layers with the formation and fate of primitive streak. Identification of craniocaudal axis of the embryo and conversion of bilaminar embryonic disc into trilaminar embryonic disc. Formation of notochordal process and canal with description of notochordal plate and neurenteric canal. Allantois and its transformation into urachus.

  • Pregnancy test and sacrococcygeal teratoma.

Derivatives of Ectoderm, Neural Tube

  • Fate of neural crest cells

  • Process of neurulation with formation of neural plate and tube. Neural crest formation and migration of neural crest cells to the different parts of the developing embryo.

Mesoderm Differentiation

  • Development of somites, differentiation of mesoderm into somites. Paraxial, intermediate and lateral mesoderm.

  • Development of intraembryonic coelom, division of lateral mesoderm and intraembryonic coelom.

  • Early development of heart, vasculogenesis and agenesis, formation of blood cells.

Endoderm, Folding of the Embryo

  • Phases of embryonic development with formation of tissues and organs.

  • Folding of the embryo in median plane with head and tail foldings.

  • Folding of the embryo in horizontal plane and formation of lateral folds.

  • Endoderm derivatives with epithelial linings of different parts of the body.

Fetal Membranes and Placenta

  • Decidua, its different regions and decidual reaction.

  • Components and functions of placenta. Metabolism and mechanisms of transport of substances across placenta.

  • Development of placenta, smooth and villous chorion, fetal and maternal parts of placenta.

  • Fetomaternal junction, shape and septa of placenta.

  • Amniochorionic membrane, intervillous space and its connections with the spiral endometrial arteries. Fetal and maternal placental circulation.

  • Different layers of placental membrane.

  • Placental endocrine synthesis and secretion.

  • Maternal and fetal surfaces of placenta.

  • Umbilical cord, false and true knots.

  • Amnion and amniotic fluid, its circulatioin, exchange, composition and significance.

  • Disorders of amniotic fluid volume.

  • Significance and fate of yolk sac.

  • Disorders of amniotic fluid volume.

The Cardiovascular System

  • Development of the veins associated with heart including vitelline, hepatic, umbilical and cardinal veins.

  • Development of inferior vena cava and branches of dorsal aorta. Fate of vitelline and umbilical arteries.

  • Early development of heart and: How it is derived, Angioblastic cords and heart tubes. Formation of cardiac primordia and fusion of the heart tubes to form primordial myocardium. After affects of the folding of the embryo on developing heart with the dilations and constrictions.

  • Circulation through the primordial heart and partitioning of atrioventricular canal. Partitioning of primordial atrium with a complete understanding of septum primum and secondum and foramina primum and secondum, and the congenital anomalies caused by the failure of closure of these foramina. Changes in sinus venosus in relation with the left and right horns.

  • Partitioning of the primordial ventricle and muscular and membranous parts of the interventricular septum, and also closure of the interventricular foramen. Formation of bulbar ridges and the development of cardiac valves.

  • Development of the conducting system of the heart with emphasis on different nodes and bundles. Cardiac anomalies including septal defects, and tetralogy of fallot. Aortic arch derivatives and their fate with coarctatioin of aorta.

Respiratory System

  • Development of upper and lower respiratory tract: Respiratory diverticulum, laryngeal groove and respiratory diverticulum.

  • Development of larynx with occlusion and recanalization of the laryngeal tube with formation of epiglottis and tracheoesophageal fistula.

  • Development of bronchi and lungs: Primary bronchial buds and their conversion into main bronchus. Bronchopulmonary segment and formation of visceral and parietal pleurae. Different periods of lung maturation and appearance of type I and type II alveolar cells with especial emphasis on surfactant formation. Fetal breathing movements and changes in the lungs before and after birth.

Body Cavities, Primitive Mesenteries and Diaphragm

  • Development of the intraembryonic and extraembryonic coelom.

  • Transformation of intraembryonic coelom into well defined body cavities.

  • Formation and function of mesenteries.

  • Division of embryonic body cavities with pleuropericardial and pleuroperitoneal membranes.

  • Development of diaphragm and its components.

  • Positional changes and innervation of the diaphragm.

  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

The pharyngeal Apparatus

  • Development of the pharyngeal arches with their components, fate and derivatives. Pharyngeal pouches and their derivatives. Pharyngeal grooves, membranes and their fate.

  • Development of the thyroid gland and its histogenesis including branchial cysts, Thyroglossal duct, cyst and sinuses.

  • Development of the tongue from different tongue buds. Papillae and taste buds with especial emphasis on the nerve supply of the tongue.

  • Development of the face from its primordia and explain the formation of the eye, nose, ear and lacrimal duct.

  • Development of the primary and secondary palates with nasal septum and ossification of the hard palate. Different kinds of lip and palatine anomalies.

Digestive System

  • Derivatives of foregut: Development of esophagus, tracheoesophageal septum, esophageal atresia.

  • Development and primordium of stomach, and its position before and after rotation.

  • Mesenteries of stomach including dorsal and ventral mesogastrium and omental bursa. Fotmation of superior and inferior recesses of the omental bursa. Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

  • Development of duodenum with its obliteration and recanalization.

  • Development of liver, gall bladder and Billiary apparatus with especial emphasis on the formation of hepatic cords, cystic duct and bile duct.

  • Development of pancreas and its histogenesis including formation of islets and insulin secretion.

  • Histogenesis and development of spleen.

  • Derivatives of midgut: Rotation of midgut loop and fixation of intestine.

  • Development of Cecum, appendix and colon with congenital hernia and omphalocele.

  • Hindgut and its derivatives with their blood supply. Cloacal membrane and its partitioning.

  • Anal canal with imperforate anus and congenital megacolon.

Development of the Urinary System

  • Development of rudimentary and permanent kidneys and ureters with description of pronephroi, mesonephroi and metanephroi. Positional and blood supply changes of the kidneys with cystic kidney diseases.

  • Development of urinary bladder with the division of cloaca. Fate of allantois and position urinary bladder in children and adults.

  • Development of the urethra with its epithelium and muscles.

  • Development of genital system with indifferent gonads. Primordial germ cells and their fate. Sex determination with complete understanding of chromosome complex and their role in sex determination.

  • Development of testes. Factors involved in the formation of different parts of the testes e.g. Rete testes, seminiferous cords, tunica albuginea, seminiferous tubules. Role of different hormones during the development of the testes.

  • Development of the ovaries, gonadal and cortical cords, primordial germ cell and follicles. Appearance of oogonia and their fate.

  • Development of genital ducts in males and females.

  • Development of inguinal canal with emphasis on deep and superficial inguinal rings.

  • Descent of testes and ovaries.

  • Hypospadius, cryptorchidism and ectopic tetes.

The Integumentary System

  • Development of skin with origin of dermis and epidermis. Different stages and layers of epidermis. Formation of melanocyte and melanin production. Difference between thick and the thin skin. Interdigitation of the epidermal and dermal ridges and growth of primordial blood vessels. Skin glands and their types with distribution of eccrine and apocrine sweat glands.

  • Development of hairs with transformation of hair bulb into lanugo. Differentiation of Melanoblasts into melanocytes and functions of arrector muscles of hairs.

  • Development of nails in fingers and toes with emphasis on eponchium and hyponychium.

  • Development of mammary glands and lactiferous ducts from the mammary buds. Formation of mammary pit and its transformation into nipples and areola. Secretion of witch’s milk and gynecomastia.

The Skeletal System

  • Differentiation of somites into sclerotomes and dermomyotome. Osteogenesis and difference between intramembranous and endochondral bone formation. Histogenesis of cartilage and of bone. Intramembranous ossification with formation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and haversian systems. Intracartilaginous ossification including primary and secondary centers of ossification. Appearance of diaphysis and epiphysis.

  • Development of axial skeleton and its composition. Development of vertebral column and fate of notochord with the formation of nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus. Cartilaginous and bony stages of vertebral development. Development of ribs and sternum. Development of cranium with especial emphasis on cartilaginous and membranous neurocranium and viscerocranium respectively. Newborn and post natal growth of cranium, and different kinds of spina bifida.

  • Development of appendicular skeleton with early and final stages of limb development and their innervation and blood supply.

Twinning, Teratogens and Congenital Anomalies

  • Multiple pregnancies with frequency of twins, triplets, quadruplets and quintuplets. Fetal membranes and difference between dizygotic and mono zygotic twins.

  • Classification of birth defects and glossary of terms. Teratology and abnormalities caused by genetic factors. Different types of trisomy of autosome and sex chromosomes, with syndromes.

Discuss the following clinical notes (blue boxes*)





Abnormal Gametes

Chapter : 2




Sperm Counts


In Vitro Fertilization & Embryo Transfer


Extra Uterine Implantation

Chapter : 3


Placenta Previa


Inhibition of Implantation


Pregnancy Tests

Chapter : 4


Sacrococcygeal Teratoma


Disorders of Amniotic Fluid Volume

Chapter : 7


Congenital Diaphragmatic hernia

Chapter : 9


Branchial Cysts

Chapter : 10


Thyroglossal Duct, Cyst and Sinuses


Cleft Lip and Palate


Tracheoesophageal Fistula

Chapter : 11


Congenital Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis

Chapter : 12


Congenital Omphalocele


Umbilical Hernia


Congenital Megacolon


Imperforate Anus


Cystic Kidney Disease

Chapter : 13


Female Ducts in Males


Mesonephric & Paramesonephric Duct Remnants in Males and Females




Cryptorchidism or Undescended Testes


Ectopic Testes


Atrial Septal Defects

Chapter : 14


Ventricular Septal Defects


Tetralogy of Fallot


Coarctation of Aorta


Spina Bifida

Chapter : 15


Congenital Club Foot

Chapter : 17



Chapter : 20

More Persaud 7th Edition
Examinations and Distribution of Marks







1st Quiz



1st CAE



2nd CAE (mid year)




2nd Quiz



3rd CAE



Final Exam

Examinations Format

  • Continuous Assessment Examination:

Written Exam:
Consists of 30 Questions- one best answer (no negative marking).

Final Examination:
Written Exam:

Consists of 60 Questions –one best answer (no negative marking)

Each Quiz will consist of 8 Questions – one best answer

Examination Contents
First Continuous Assessment:

Comprehensive exam (i.e. all topics studied from the beginning of the academic year are included).

Mid year exam:

One third of questions are related to the topics included in the first continuous assessment.

Two thirds of questions are related to the rest of topics studied during the first semester.
Third continuous exam:

It includes topics studied during the second semester until the time of the exam.


Topics of each quiz will include all subjects taught before the quiz time excluding a week before. .

Final Exam:

It is a comprehensive exam (i.e. All topics studied through the academic year will be included in the final exam).

30% of the questions are related to the topics studied during the first semester.

70% of the questions are related to the topics studied during the second semester.

Re-sit Examinations
Continuous Assessment and Quizzes:
The absentees should submit genuine reason to the chairman of Anatomy Department within One Week from the date of the exam. Only those students will be allowed to take the re-sit exam whose excuse is accepted by the chairman of the department.

Re-sit exam will be in the form of Essay written exam.

Final exam:
It carries 100 marks.

Eligibility for Examinations
Minimum 75% attendance is needed.

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