1. What nerve is damaged if work of the lateral rectus muscle of eye-ball is blocked in a patient?



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Cranial nerves
1. What nerve is damaged if work of the lateral rectus muscle of eye-ball is blocked in a patient?

Abducent nerve.


2. What nerve is damaged if a patient with damaged upper eye pit wall lost ability to upper eyelid rising?

Upper branch of oculomotor nerve.


3. What nerve is damaged if a patient presents blepharoptosis, pupil dilatation and limited motility of the eye-ball?

Oculomotor nerve.


4. What nerve is damaged if after surgical intervention on the stomach patients presents bradyperistalsis and gland secretion slowing-dawn, weakening of pyloric sphincter?

Vagus nerve.

6. Functions of what cranial nerves are examined while checking up reaction of palatum molle to irritation?

9 and 10 pairs.


7. From what vegetative head ganglions is ciliary muscle innervated?

Ciliaryganglion.


8. Branches of what nerves form sensory root of ciliary ganglion?

Long ciliary nerves from I branch of V pair.


9. Functions of what cranial nerves are disturbed if a patient with fracture of base of the skull presents sharp pain in the frontal and temporal head areas and impossibility of eye-ball abduction outward?

Orbital and abducent nerves.


10. What vegetative head ganglion sympathetic root approaches to (post-ganglion sympathetic fibers) from upper cervical sympathetic ganglion)?

To ciliary ganglion.


11. What cranial-cerebral nerves pass into sinus cavernosus together with inner carotid artery and may be incarcerated in hematoma formation?

ІІІ, VI, IV pairs of CN and I branch of V pair.


12. On what structure of cerebral trunk are nuclei of oculomotor nerve projected?

Superior colliculus of midbrain.


13. What nerve with its branches participates in innervations of upper eyelid skin?

Orbital nerve.


14. What nerve is damaged if a patient complains of vertigo and hearing loss on the right?

Right vestibulocochlear nerve.


15. Damage of what nerve may lead to difficulty of right upper limb rising up to horizontal level (damage of trapezoid muscle)?

Right accessory nerve.


16. Damage of what nerve may lead to difficulty of head rotation to the left and to head lag?

Right accessory nerve.


17. What nerve innervates root of the tongue mucosa and areas of palatine tonsils?

Glosso-pharyngeal nerve.


18. Irritation of what nerve, followed by hoarseness, may be caused by aneurism of the right subclavian artery?

Right recurrent laryngeal nerve.


19. What nerve is damaged if a patient presents atrophic changes of the tongue, speech disturbances, its irregular deviations on moving, difficulty swallowing? Hypoglossal nerve.
20. What nerve is damaged if a patient presents flatness of skin folds in the forehead area, ptosis of angle of the mouth?

Facial nerve.


21. What branch of what CN is damaged if patient lost general sensitivity of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

Lingual nerve of mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve.


22. What branch of what 0043N is damaged if patient lost general sensitivity of skin integuments of the right facial part in the area of lower eyelid, dorsum of nose, and upper lip?

Maxillary nerve of trigeminal nerve.


23. In what portion of facial nerve is damaged if patient presents the following symptoms: mimic musculature palsy, disorder of gustatory sensitivity of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, dryness in the mouth but with preserved lacrimation function?

In the facial nerve canal, lower than geniculum, after origin of greater petrosal nerve.


24. What nerve is damaged if patient with purulent inflammation of the middle ear develops disorder of gustatory sensitivity of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue and salivation disorder?

Tympanichord.


25. Damage of what nerve may cause palsy of soft palate muscles (innervates one of the basic muscles)?

ІІІ branch of trigeminal nerve.


26. What nerve may be damaged during surgery for subtotal subfascial resection of the thyroid gland, if in postoperative period hoarseness lasts for a long period of time?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve.


27. What nerve enhances secretory activity of parotid salivary gland?

Lesser petrosal nerve.


28. Branches of what nerve innervate masticatory muscles, located lower than zygomatic arch?

Mandibular nerve.


29. What CN is damaged if patient after catarrhal disease develops numbness and disorder of general sensitivity of skin in the right facial part?

Trigeminal nerve.


30. What CN is damaged if patient lost general sensitivity of supraciliary forehead area, zygomatic and mental areas in the right?

Trigeminal nerve.

31. Through what cranial foramen second branch of trigeminal nerve origins?

Round foramen.


32. What nerve is damaged if after hematoma with localization in the region of middle cranial fossa patient developed stable dilatation of pupil on the side of lesion?

Oculomotor nerve.


33. Irritation of vegetative fibers of what cranial nerves may lead to lacrimation and increased salivation?

Parasympathetic fibers of facial (intermediate) nerve.


34. Damage of what nerve may dislocation of mandibula be accompanied by, if patient lost gustatory perceptions by 2/3 part of tongue mucosa and lacrimation is disturbed?

Facial (intermediate) nerve.


35. What nerves pass through superior orbital fissure?
III (oculomotor nerve), IV (trochlear nerve), VI (abducent nerve) and I (ophtalmic) branch of V pair (trigeminal nerve).
36. How do branches of trigeminal nerve (V pair) come out of cranial cavity?
Ophthalmic nerve (I branch) – through superior orbital fissure; maxillary nerve (II branch) – through foramen rotundum ; mandibular nerve (III branch) – through oval foramen.
37. What branches of what nerve pass through inferior orbital fissure?
Infraorbital and zygomatic nerves of trigeminal nerve.
38. What nerves pass through jugular foramen?

Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI).


39. What cranial nerves have vegetative (parasympathetic) nuclei?

Oculomotor nerve (III), facial nerve (VII), glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X).


40. What cranial nerves provide secretory innervation of salivary glands?

Facial nerve – secretory innervation of all salivary glands (except parotid gland), glossopharyngeal– secretory innervation of parotid gland.


41. What nerve provides general sensitivity of the eye-ball?

Short and long ciliary nerves from nasociliary nerve from orbital branch of trigeminal nerve.


42. What nerve provides general sensitivity of the heart?

General sensitivity of the heart is provided by two basic nerves: phrenic nerve from cervical plexus and cardiac branches of vagus nerve.


43. Describe full innervation of lacrimal gland.

Lacrimal gland receives the following types of innervations:

General sensitivity – lacrimal branch from ophthalmic nerve of Vpair.

Secretory innervation (parasympathetic) – greater petrosal nerve of facial nerve.
44. Give full innervation of parotid salivary gland.

Parotid salivary gland receives the following types of innervations:

General sensitivity – auriculo-temporal branch from mandibular nerve of V pair.

Secretory innervation (parasympathetic) – tympanic nerve (after coming out from tympanic cavity it is lesser petrosal nerve) of glossopharyngeal nerve.


45. What nerves provide innervation of soft palate muscles?

Mandibular nerve of V pair innervates muscle, straining soft palate; motor branches of vagus nerve – innervate transverse muscle of soft palate; muscle, rising soft palate; uvular muscle.


46. What nerves forms parotid plexus and what does it innervate?

Parotid plexus is formed by motor branches of facial nerve and provides innervations of mimic muscles.


49. What nerves are related to sensitive group?

Olfactory nerve (I pair), optic nerve (II pair), vestibulo-cochlear nerve (VIII pair).
50. What cranial nerves are related to motor group?

Oculomotor nerve (III pair by function), trochlear nerve (IV pair), abducent nerve (VI pair), accessory nerve (XI pair), hypoglossal nerve (XII pair).


51. What cranial nerves are related to mixed group?

Trigeminal(V), facial nerve (VII pair), glossopharyngeal nerve (IX pair), vagus nerve (X pair).


52. Name parasympathetic ganglia of the head:

Ciliary ganglion is located in the orbit (eye pit) near optic nerve, pterygo-palatine ganglion is located in the same-name cranial fossa, submandibular ganglion is located in submandibular triangle of the neck, sublingual ganglion is located in sublingual fold of the oral cavity (often is absent), parotid ganglion is located on exit from oval foramen on mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve.


53. What branches of what cranial nerve are linked with ciliary ganglion and what do these branches innervate?

Ciliary ganglion is destined for inferior branch of oculomotor nerve, which contains parasympathetic fibers for innervations of smooth muscles of the eye-ball: ciliary muscle and muscle contracting pupil.


54. What branches of what cranial nerve are linked with pterygo-palatine ganglion and what do these branches innervate?

Pterygo-palatine ganglion is linked with greater petrosal nerve of facial nerve, on exit from ganglion these fibers innervate salivary gland secretion, secretion of mucosa of nasal and oral cavity.


55. What branches of what cranial nerve are linked with submandibular ganglion and subglossal one, and what do these branches innervate?

Tympanichord of facial nerve is linked with submandibular ganglion and sublingual ones, postganglional fibers innervate secretion of mucosa of fundus of oral cavity, secretion of submandibular and sublingual salivary glands.


56. What branches of what cranial nerve are linked with parotid ganglion and what do these branches innervate?

Tympanic branch of glossopharyngeal nerve is linked with parotid ganglion, postganglional fibers innervate secretion of parotid salivary gland.


57. With branches of what cranial nerve postganglional parasympathetic fibers of oculomotor nerve reach eye-ball?

After ciliary ganglion parasympathetic fibers of oculomotor nerve are in the composition of short and long ciliary branches of naso-ciliary nerve of I branch of V pair.


58. With branches of what cranial nerve postganglional parasympathetic fibers of greater petrosal nerve from facial nerve reach objects of innervation?
After pterygo-palatine ganglion parasympathetic fibers of greater petrosal nerve are in the composition of: zygomatic nerve into orbit for innervations of lacrimal gland secretion; in the composition of infraorbital nerve for innervation of secretion of oral cavity mucosa; in the composition of greater palatine nerve into oral cavity for innervation of secretion of oral cavity mucosa; in the composition of posterior superior nasal nerve for innervation of secretion of nasal cavity mucosa and of oral cavity mucosa. All mentioned branches are derivatives of II branch of V pair.
59. With branches of what cranial nerve postganglional parasympathetic fibers of tympanic (lesser petrosal nerve) reach parotid salivary gland?

After parotid ganglion parasympathetic fibers of glossopharyngeal nerve are in the composition of auriculo-temporal branch of mandibular nerve of V pair.


60. Where are parasympathetic ganglia of vagus nerve located?

Parasympathetic ganglia of vagus nerve are located in the wall of innervated nerve (intramuraly).


61. What cranial nerves form anastomosis with cervical plexus for innervations of organs and structures?

Facial nerve, vagus nerve, accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve.


62. How is the structure, which hypoglossal nerve form with branches of cervical plexus called and what does it innervate?

Cervical branch of hypoglossal nerve and motor branches of the first three segments form « ansa cervicalis» for motor innervation of infrahyoid group of neck muscles.

64. What is the object of synergetic innervation of accessory nerve?

Motor function of sterno-cleido-mastoid and trapezoid muscles.


65. What kind of innervations vagus nerve and phrenic nerve execute synergistically?

Vagus nerve and phrenic nerve provide general sensitivity of thoracic organs and second floor of abdominal cavity.


66. What nerves provide innervations of diaphragm?

General sensitivity of diaphragm – by branches of vagus nerve and phrenic nerve; motor function – by phrenic nerve.


67. Describe general sensitivity of external acoustic meatus.

General sensitivity of external acoustic meatus is provided by:

Auriculo-temporal nerve of III branch of V pair, auricular branch of the vagus.
68. What branches of what nerve provide general sensitivity of dura mater of posterior cranial fossa?

General sensitivity of mater of posterior cranial fossa is provided by:

Tenctorial ramus of ophthalmic nerve of V pair, meningeal ramus of vagus.
69. What branches of what nerve provide general sensitivity of maxillary sinus?

General sensitivity of maxillary sinus is provided by branches of maxillary nerve of V pair: posterior, medial and anterior alveolar branches of infraorbital nerve; lateral branch of posterior superior nasal nerve; branches of greater nasal nerve.


70. What branches of what nerve provide general sensitivity of maxillary teeth?

General sensitivity of maxillary teeth is provided by branches of maxillary nerve of V pair: posterior, medial and anterior alveolar branches of infraorbital nerve which form superior alveolar plexus.


71. What branches of what nerve provide general sensitivity of mandibular teeth?

General sensitivity of mandibular teeth is provided by branches of mandibular nerve of V pair: inferior alveolar nerve from mandibular nerve which forms inferior alveolar plexus.


72. What is general sensitivity of tonsils of lympho-epithelial Waldeyer-Pirogov’s ring provided by?

General sensitivity of tonsils of lympho-epithelial ring is provided by: pharyngeal and two tonsillae tubaris get innervation of general sensitivity from pharyngeal branches of vagus nerve: palatine and lingual tonsils – from lingual and palatine branches of glossopharyngeal nerve.


73. What nerves provide innervations of general sensitivity and secretion of laryngeal mucosa?

Innervation of general sensitivity and secretion of laryngeal mucosa is provided by branches of vagus nerve: superior laryngeal nerve to vocal fold, inferior laryngeal branch from recurrent laryngeal nerve lower than vocal fold.


74. What nerve may be damaged in traumatic destruction of lateral wall of orbital cavity; this is followed by loss of ability of eye-ball to abduction on the injured side?

Abducent nerve.


75. Nuclei of what pair of CN are damaged in case of epidemic encephalitis, if patient presents dilatation of pupils, disorder of accommodation and bilateral ptosis (blepharoptosis) and divergent strabismus?

Oculomotor nerve.


76. Function of what nerve is damaged in a patient if nasolabial fold is smoothened, right orbital fissure is dilated and difficulties in eating and speaking occur?

Right facial nerve.


77. Motor innervations of what cranial nerve is damaged in a patient if on moving of the tongue its apex deviates to the left?

Right hypoglossal nerve.


78. Which of cranial nerves executes motor innervations of the tongue? Hypoglossal nerve.


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