1. The blood supply of Little’s area (anteroinferior part of the septum) is best described by



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Head and Neck
1. The blood supply of Little’s area (anteroinferior part of the septum) is best described by

a. Anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries from the ophthalmic artery

b. The sphenopalatine branch of the maxillary artery

c. Sphenopalatine artery and septal branch of the superior labial branch of the facial artery

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

2. the septum of the nasal cavity is innervated by

a. nasopalatine nerve from cranial nerve V2

b. posterior ethmoidal nerve from V1

c. greater palatine nerve from V2

d. lesser palatine nerve from V2

e. none of the above

3. The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles

a. Abduct the vocal cords

b. Adduct the vocal cords

c. Tensor of the vocal cords

d. Relaxors of the vocal cords

e. Act as a sphincter

4. The superior laryngeal nerve

a. Divides into internal and recurrent laryngeal nerves

b. Supplies the crocothyroid muscle via an external laryngeal branch

c. Supplies all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx

d. Is sensory to larynx below the vocal cords

e. None of the above

5. The surface markings of the trachea include

a. Origin at lower end of the cricoid at C4 vertebra

b. Origin at C6 vertebra level

c. Termination at T2 at expiration

d. Termination at T4 level at maximal inspiration

e. 3rd to 5th rings covered anteriorly by isthmus of the thyroid

6. What runs through the foramen spinosum?

a. Internal carotid artery

b. Maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve

c. Mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve

d. Middle meningeal artery

e. Meningeal nerve

7. The internal jugular vein

a. Drains into the subclavian vein on the left

b. Lies in the carotid sheath with the carotid artery and the sympathetic trunk

c. Lies lateral to the internal carotid artery at the base of the skull

d. Lies lateral to the carotid artery in the lower neck

e. Lies anterior to the sternocleidomastoid

8. The seventh cervical vertebra

a. Is typical

b. Has a bifid spinous process

c. Transmits the vertebral artery through the foramen in the transverse process

d. Has the supra-pleural membrane attached to the anterior tubercle

e. Has a short spinous process

9. The atlas

a. Has no foramen in the transverse process

b. Is the narrowest cervical vertebra

c. Has a body

d. Has a posterior arch grooved by the vertebral artery

e. Has a short spinous process

10. Branches of the carotid artery include

a. Inferior thyroid artery

b. Ascending pharyngeal artery

c. Internal thoracic

d. Superficial cervical

e. Thymic artery

11. The blood supply to the nasal cavity

a. Is only from the external carotid

b. Mainly enters through the nostril

c. Does not communicate with intracranial vessels

d. Mainly enters the sphenopalatine foramen

e. Arrives to Little’s area from ophthalmic artery branches

12. Protection of the airway during swallowing is not facilitated by

a. The sphincteric action of the ariepiglottic muscles

b. closure of the glottis

c. Elevation of the larynx

d. Contraction of the cricothyroid muscle

e. Posterior bulging of the tongue assisting closure of the larynx

13. Structure of the larynx includes

a. The inlet being bounded posteriorly by the epiglottis

b. The posterior cricoarytenoid being an adductor of the vocal cords

c. The aryepiglottic fold contains the cuneiform cartilage



d. The rima of the vestibule being the fissure between the two vocal cords

e. The cricoid cartilage not being circumferential

14. The trachea

a. Commences below the cricoid at the level of C5

b. Enters the thoracic inlet slightly to the left

c. Is marked at its lower end by the level of the sternal angle

d. Is supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve

e. Drains to axillary lymph nodes

15. All of the following are branches of the external carotid artery EXCEPT:

a. Superior thyroid artery

b. Hypoglossal artery

c. Facial artery

d. Lingual artery

e. Ascending pharyngeal artery

16. Regarding triangles of the neck all of the following structures are boundaries of the triangle named EXCEPT:

a. Submental triangle, mandible

b. Anterior triangle, mandible

c. Digastric triangle, mandible

d. Carotid triangle, sternocleidomastoid

e. Anterior triangle, sternocleidomastoid

17. All of the following are contents of the posterior triangle of the neck EXCEPT:

a. Occipital lymph nodes

b. Accessory nerve

c. Cervical plexus

d. Inferior belly of omohyoid

e. Transverse cervical vessels

18. Which one of the following opens into the inferior meatus of the nose

a. Frontal sinus

b. Ethmoidal sinus

c. Maxillary sinus

d. Nasolacrimal duct

e. Auditory tube

19. A fracture through the roof of the maxillary sinus might result in sensory loss to the

a. Tympanic membrane - auriculotemporal

b. Lacrimal gland - zygomatic

c. Upper molar teeth – superior alveolar

d. Skin overlying the zygomatic bone - zygomaticofacial

e. Upper incisors and canine teeth <- infraorbital nerve

20. All of the following structures pass through the jugular foramen EXCEPT:

a. Jugular vein

b. Glossopharyngeal nerve

c. Hypoglossal nerve

d. Accessory nerve

e. Vagus nerve

21. Regarding the basilar artery, all the below are true EXCEPT:

a. Gives off branches to the anterior spinal artery

b. Divides to give off both posterior cerebral arteries

c. Supplies branches to the pons

d. Formed by the union of the vertebral arteries

e. Lies on the ventral aspect of the cerebral peduncle

22. In the circle of Willis

a. The basilar artery divides into right and left posterior cerebellar arteries

b. The middle cerebral arteries branch off and supply the motor but not sensory cortex

c. The anterior communicating artery unites the middle cerebral artery to the internal cerebral artery

d. It encircles the inferior brainstem at C2-3 level

e. The internal carotid artery gives off the ophthalmic artery before dividing into anterior and middle cerebral arteries

23. Regarding the facial vein, all of the following are true EXCEPT:

a. It drains into the internal jugular vein

b. It has no valves

c. It communicates with the cavernous sinus via the ophthalmic vein

d. It runs inferoposteriorly anterior to the facial artery

e. It communicates with the pterygoid plexus via the deep facial vein

24. The 2nd cervical vertebra

a. Has a very small spinous process

b. Articulates with the occiput

c. Has a bifid spinous process

d. It referred to as the atlas

e. Has a dens that occupies the posterior 1/3 of the canal

25. Regarding the larynx

a. All muscles are supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerve

b. Thyroarytenoid muscle alters the tension of the vocal cord

c. Recurrent laryngeal nerve passes anterior to the criocthyroid joint

d. During swallowing, the epiglottis acts as a passive flap

e. All of the larynx is covered by pseudostratified columnar epithelium

26. Regarding the vertebral column all are correct EXCEPT:

a. The facet joints in the lumbar spine lie in an anteroposterior plane

b. The vertebral arteries ascend through the foramen in the transverse processes of the upper six cervical vertebrae

c. The spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae are usually bifid

d. Thoracic vertebrae I, II and XII have single costal facets on their pedicles

e. The sacrum has 5 sets of anterior and posterior sacral foramina, one corresponding to each of the sacral segments

27. The internal jugular vein

a. Is surrounded by the thickest portion of carotid sheath

b. Receives drainage from all the parathyroid glands

c. Is crossed posteriorly by the accessory nerve

d. Is crossed anteriorly by the thoracic duct

e. Contains valves within its lumen

28. Venous drainage of the face

a. Is both deep and superficial

b. Empties ultimately into the internal jugular vein alone

c. Communicates indirectly with the cavernous sinus via the deep facial vein

d. Communicates directly with the cavernous sinus via the supraorbital veins

e. All of the above

29. The larynx

a. Is a respiratory organ whose essential function is phonation

b. Extends from the anterior upper border of the epiglottis to the level of C6

c. Consists of two single cartilages, the thyroid and cricoid

d. Is hauled up beneath the tongue with the epiglottis tilted anterior and upwards during swallowing

e. Is supplied by the external laryngeal nerve except for the cricothyroid muscle which is supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerve

30. Regarding the larynx

a. The external laryngeal nerve supplies the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle

b. The internal laryngeal nerve supplies cricothyroid

c. The blood supply above the vocal cords is by a branch of the internal carotid

d. Normal vocal cords are always covered by stratified squamous epithelium

e. The recurrent laryngeal nerve lies immediately behind the cricoarytenoid joint

31. In the skull

a. The anterior fontanelle usually closes by 2 months

b. The pterion overlies the middle meningeal artery

c. The round foramen transmits the mandibular branch of the fifth cranial nerve

d. The cribriform plate is part of the sphenoid bone

e. All of the above are correct

32. The orbit contains all of the following EXCEPT:

a. Branches of the facial nerve

b. The optic nerve

c. The third cranial nerve

d. A subarachnoid space

e. The inferior rectus muscle

33. Which is true of the trachea?

a. Begins at the level of C7

b. Isthmus of the thyroid lies anterior to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th rings

c. Has 15-20 complete cartilaginous rings

d. Receives its blood supply from the inferior thyroid artery alone

e. Pulmonary artery bifurcates anterior to its lower end

34. Which does not travel through the jugular foramen?

a. Hypoglossal nerve

b. Accessory nerve

c. Inferior petrosal sinus

d. Glossopharyngeal nerve

e. Vagus nerve

35. Regarding veins in the skull

a. Do not follow arteries

b. Lie subdurally

c. Great cerebral vein drains into cavernous sinus

d. ?

e. ?


36. The submandibular ganglion receives fibres from

a. Superior salivatory nucleus

b. ?

c. ?


d. ?

e. ?


37. Which muscle controls vocal cord abduction in the larynx

a. Aryepiglottic

b. Posterior cricoarytenoid

c. Transverse arytenoids

d. Lateral cricoarytenoid

e. Cricothyroid

38. Lumbar vertebrae are distinguishable from thoracic because:

a. They have transverse foramina

b. The bodies are concave from above down

c. Their bodies are kidney shaped and flatter posteriorly

d. They have costal facets

e. Their spinous processes project inferiorly with the tip lying at the body two vertebrae inferiorly

39. Contents of the digastric triangle include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. Facial artery

b. Submandibular lymph nodes

c. Hypoglossal nerve

d. Glossopharyngeal nerve

e. Nerve to mylohyoid

40. The internal carotid artery

a. Is medial to the external carotid artery at its origin

b. Gives rise to the superior thyroid artery

c. Lies outside the carotid sheath

d. Passes through the carotid canal in the base of the skull

e. Lies in the anterior part of the cavernous sinus

41. The C7 cervical vertebra is atypical in that

a. It has bifid spinous process

b. The foramen in the transverse process does not transmit the vertebral artery

c. The anterior tubercle is large

d. It has kidney shaped facets

e. The posterior tubercle gives origin to scalenus anterior

42. Regarding the mandible:

a. The coronoid process is the attachment of temporalis and is posterior to the head of the mandible

b. It is a U-shaped bone without a symphysis

c. The facial artery can be palpated crossing the lower border just posterior to masseter

d. It has a mandibular foramen on its lateral surface

e. Buccinator is attached to the external oblique line

43. The thyroid gland

a. Is penetrated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve

b. Is supplied by the middle thyroid artery

c. Has its isthmus adherent to the 3rd, 4th and 5th tracheal rings

d. Originates from the caudal end of the thyroglossal duct

e. Is contained within the prevertebral fascia

44. Which of the following combinations is correct regarding the paranasal sinuses and where they drain to?

a. Maxillary sinus; middle meatus

b. Anterior ethmoidal air cells; inferior meatus

c. Posterior ethmoidal air cells; oral cavity

d. Sphenoid sinus; frontonasal recess

e. Frontal sinus; lacrimal duct

45. The inferior oblique

a. Arises from the maxilla on the floor of the orbit, near the anterior margin

b. Is attached to the posterosuperior medial quadrant of the sclera

c. Is supplied by the abducent nerve (CN VI)

d. Turns the eye upwards and in

e. Is supplied by the posterior ciliary artery

46. The most important mechanism for airway protection is

a. Depression of larynx

b. Adduction of vestibular folds

c. Elevation of larynx

d. Movement of epiglottis

e. Abduction of vocal cords

47. The recurrent laryngeal nerve

a. Lies in front of the pretracheal fascia

b. Approaches the thyroid gland from above

c. Runs in the groove between the trachea and oesophagus

d. Passes behind the cricothyroid joint

e. Contains only sensory fibres

48. Larynx

a. Continues with the trachea at C6

b. Its major role is for phonation

c. Lies behind the thyroid gland

d. All the muscles are supplied by the receurrent laryngeal nerve

e. Blood supply is from the inferior thyroid artery

49. Which muscle abducts the vocal cords?

a. Transverse arytenoids

b. Cricothyroid

c. Lateral cricoarytenoid

d. Posterior cricoarytenoid

e. Thyoarytenoid

50. The cricoid cartilage

a. Articulates with the thyroid cartilage via fibrocartilage joints

b. Is an incomplete cartilaginous ring

c. Projects anteriorly as a quadrangular flat part

d. Provides attachment for anterior cricoarytenoid muscle

e. Articulates superiorly with the inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage

51. The carotid triangle contains

a. Subclavia artery

b. Omohyoid muscle

c. Occipital artery

d. Internal laryngeal nerve

e. Anterior jugular vein

52. The cervical sympathetic trunk

a. Descends from the upper posterior triangle to the first rib

b. Runs lateral to the vertebral artery

c. Lies behind the carotid sheath

d. Lies behind the prevertebral fascia

e. Ends at the inferior cervical ganglion

53. The carotid sheath

a. Extends from the base of the skull to the bifurcation of common carotid

b. Contains the stylohyoid ligament

c. Contains only three cranial nerves

d. Is attached to the aorta

e. Contains the sympathetic trunk

54. Regarding the vertebrae

a. Spinal nerves emerge through foramina between the vertebral laminae

b. The anterior longitudinal ligament extends from the anterior tubercle of the atlas to the upper part of the lumbar spine

c. Articular processes are joined to adjacent vertebrae by synovial joints

d. The ligamentum flavum joins borders of adjacent spinous processes

e. A typical thoracic vertebra has foramina in the transverse processes

55. When performing a lumbar puncture the spinal needle should not pass through the

a. Ligamentum flavum

b. Posterior longitudinal ligament

c. Supraspinous ligament

d. Inerspinous ligament

e. Skin


56. All the following are branches of the external carotid artery EXCEPT:

a. Lingual artery

b. Facial artery

c. Ascending pharyngeal artery

d. Hypoglossal artery

e. Superior thyroid artery

57. The alar ligaments connect the

a. Bodies of the axis to foramen magnum

b. Dens to foramen magnum

c. Adjacent vertebral bodies posteriorly

d. Tips of adjacent spinous processes

e. Adjacent laminae

58. All the following are boundaries of the named triangle except:

a. Mandible and submental triangle

b. Mandible and anterior triangle

c. Mandible and digastric triangle

d. Sternocleidomastoid and carotid triangle

e. Sternocleidomastoid and anterior triangle

59. All the following are contents of the posterior triangle EXCEPT:

a. Accessory nerve

b. Cervical plexus

c. Inferior belly of omohyoid

d. Transverse cervical vessels

e. Occipital lymph nodes

60. Which of the following enters into the inferior meatus of the nose?

a. Frontal sinus

b. Ethmoidal sinus

c. Maxillary sinus

d. Nasolacrimal duct

e. Auditory tube

61. A fracture through the roof of the maxillary sinus might result in sensory loss to the

a. Tympanicmembrane

b. Lacrimal gland

c. Upper molar teeth

d. Upper incisors and canine teeth

e. Skin overlying the zygomatic bone

62. All the following structures pass through the jugular foramen EXCEPT:

a. Jugular vein

b. Glossopharyngeal nerve

c. Hypoglossal nerve

d. Accessory nerve

e. Vagus nerve

63. Which is true of swallowing?

a. It is entirely voluntary

b. The oropharyngeal portion is voluntary

c. Peristalsis speeds as the bolus descends

d. The voluntary stage commences as food enters the oesophagus

e. It is initially voluntary then involuntary

64. Which muscle controls vocal cord abduction?

a. Aryepiglottic

b. Transverse arytenoids

c. Lateral cricoarytenoid

d. Posterior cricoarytenoid

e. Cricothyroid

65. What exits the stylomastoid foramen?

a. Middle meningeal artery

b. Accessory nerve

c. Facial nerve

d. Artery to stapedius

e. Hypoglossal nerve

66. Which vessel supplies a branch which passes through the foramen spinosum?

a. ?


b. ?

c. maxillary artery

d. ?

e. ?


67. submandibular ganglion

a. ?


b. ?

c. ?


d. ?

e. ?


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