1 Syndesmosis is to ligament as symphysis is to a fibrous cartilage



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1) Syndesmosis is to ligament as symphysis is to

A) fibrous cartilage.

B) dense regular connective tissue.

C) periodontal ligament.

D) rigid cartilaginous bridge.

E) completely fused.

Answer: A

Learning Outcome: 9-1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

2) Which of the following is not a function of synovial fluid?

A) shock absorption

B) increases osmotic pressure within joint

C) lubrication

D) provides nutrients

E) protects articular cartilages

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 9-2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

3) Mike falls off his skateboard and sprains his ankle. Which of the following most likely occurs with this type of accident?

A) A bursa is damaged and leaks synovial fluid.

B) A ligament is stretched and collagen fibers in the ligament are damaged

C) Articulating bones are forced out of position and ligaments are torn.

D) Dislocation of the ankle occurs.

E) The tibia is broken and must be set in a cast.

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 9-2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

4) Which of the following movements is a good example of flexion?

A) opening the mouth

B) turning the hand palm upward

C) extreme bending of the head backwards

D) moving the hand toward the shoulder

E) spreading the fingers

Answer: D

Learning Outcome: 9-3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


5) Curling into the "fetal position" ________ the intervertebral joints.

A) hyperextends

B) flexes

C) abducts

D) extends

E) rotates

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 9-3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

6) Which of the following movements is a good example of supination?

A) opening the mouth

B) turning the hand palm upward

C) extreme bending of the head backwards

D) moving the hand toward the shoulder

E) spreading the fingers

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 9-3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

7) Nodding your head "yes" is an example of

A) lateral and medial rotation.

B) circumduction.

C) flexion and extension.

D) pronation and supination.

E) protraction and retraction.

Answer: C

Learning Outcome: 9-3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

81) All of the following movements occur at the intervertebral joints except

A) flexion.

B) rotation.

C) dorsiflexion.

D) lateral flexion.

E) extension.

Answer: C

Learning Outcome: 9-4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge

9) A herniated disc occurs when the

A) nucleus pulposus breaks through the anulus fibrosus.

B) disc slips out from between the adjacent vertebrae.

C) adjacent bones fuse.

D) knee is hyperextended.

E) inner core of the disc is squeezed to one side.

Answer: A

Learning Outcome: 9-4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
10) The elbow joint is extremely stable because

A) the ulna and humerus interlock.

B) the articular capsule is thin.

C) the capsule lacks ligaments.

D) several muscles support the joint capsule.

E) the joint lacks bursae.

Answer: A

Learning Outcome: 9-5

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

11) Which of the following athletes are at greatest risk of developing a rotator cuff injury?

A) tennis players

B) soccer players

C) runners

D) baseball pitchers

E) high jumpers

Answer: D

Learning Outcome: 9-5

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

12) The normal movement of the knee joint during walking involves

A) abduction.

B) adduction.

C) flexion.

D) extension.

E) both flexion and extension.

Answer: E

Learning Outcome: 9-6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

13) Which of the following explains the occurrence of a hip fracture rather than a hip dislocation?

A) There is a severe lack of capsular fibers in hip joints compared to other synovial joints.

B) Only three ligaments are present in hip joints to provide stability.

C) Stress gets transferred from head of femur to the diaphysis via the thin neck.

D) Muscles surrounding the hip joint are altogether small and thus provide little stability.

E) All of the above.

Answer: C

Learning Outcome: 9-6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

14) Factors that increase the stability of the hip joint include

A) strong muscular padding.

B) tough capsule.

C) almost complete bony socket.

D) supporting ligaments.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: E

Learning Outcome: 9-6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
15) The most common athletic knee injury produces damage to the

A) patella.

B) lateral meniscus.

C) ligaments.

D) tendons.

E) medial meniscus.

Answer: E

Learning Outcome: 9-6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
16) Which of the following is a recognized function of skeletal muscle?

A) produce movement

B) maintain posture

C) maintain body temperature

D) guard body entrances and exits

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: E

Learning Outcome: 10-1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge

17) The bundle of collagen fibers at the end of a skeletal muscle that attaches the muscle to bone is called a(n)

A) fascicle.

B) tendon.

C) ligament.

D) epimysium.

E) myofibril.

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 10-2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge

18) Put the following structures in order from superficial to deep.

1. muscle fiber

2. perimysium

3. myofibril

4. fascicle

5. endomysium

6. epimysium

A) 1, 5, 4, 3, 2, 6

B) 6, 2, 5, 4, 1, 3

C) 6, 2, 4, 5, 1, 3

D) 1, 3, 5, 6, 4, 2

E) 2, 3, 1, 4, 6, 5

Answer: C

Learning Outcome: 10-2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

19) The advantage of having many nuclei in a skeletal muscle fiber is the ability to

A) contract much more forcefully.

B) produce more ATP with little oxygen.

C) store extra DNA for metabolism.

D) produce large amounts of muscle proteins.

E) produce nutrients for muscle contraction.

Answer: D

Learning Outcome: 10-3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

20) When a skeletal muscle fiber contracts, the

A) H bands and I bands get larger.

B) zones of overlap get larger.

C) Z lines move further apart.

D) width of the A band increases.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 10-3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
21) Since each myofibril is attached at either end of the muscle fiber, when sarcomeres shorten, the muscle fiber

A) lengthens.

B) shortens.

C) strengthens.

D) weakens.

E) pulls from the middle.

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 10-3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
22) The muscle weakness of myasthenia gravis results from

A) insufficient acetylcholine release from presynaptic vesicles.

B) loss of acetylcholine receptors in the end-plate membrane.

C) the motor neuron action potential being too small to stimulate the muscle fibers.

D) excessive acetylcholinesterase that destroys the neurotransmitter.

E) inability of the muscle fiber to produce ATP.

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 10-4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

23) The following is a list of the events that occur during a muscle contraction. What is the correct sequence of these events?

1. Myosin cross-bridges bind to the actin.

2. The free myosin head splits ATP.

3. Calcium ion is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

4. The myosin head pivots toward the center of the sarcomere.

5. Calcium ion binds to troponin.

6. The myosin head binds an ATP molecule and detaches from the actin.

A) 1, 3, 5, 4, 6, 2

B) 5, 1, 4, 6, 2, 3

C) 3, 5, 1, 2, 4, 6

D) 3, 5, 1, 4, 6, 2

E) 1, 4, 6, 2, 3, 5

Answer: D

Learning Outcome: 10-4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

24) Which of the following statements about excitation-contraction coupling is incorrect?

A) Calcium ions travel through the transverse tubule.

B) Calcium ion is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

C) Tropomyosin moves to expose myosin binding sites on actin.

D) Troponin binds calcium ion and signals tropomyosin to move.

E) Relaxation requires uptake of calcium ion by the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

Answer: A

Learning Outcome: 10-4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
25) Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters that are released by ________ when the action potential arrives.

A) endocytosis

B) apoptosis

C) exocytosis

D) hydrolysis

E) sodium

Answer: C

Learning Outcome: 10-4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

36) A patient takes a medication that blocks ACh receptors of skeletal muscle fibers. What is this drug's effect on skeletal muscle contraction?

A) increases tone in the muscle

B) causes a strong contraction similar to a "charlie horse" cramp

C) increases the muscle's excitability

D) produces a strong, continuous state of contraction

E) reduces the muscle's ability for contraction

Answer: E

Learning Outcome: 10-4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

27) In an isotonic contraction,

A) muscle tension exceeds the load and the muscle lifts the load.

B) tension rises and falls but the muscle length is constant.

C) the peak tension is less than the load.

D) many twitches always fuse into one.

E) postural muscles stabilize the vertebrae.

Answer: A

Learning Outcome: 10-5

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

28) Muscles that move the eyeball have ________ fibers.

A) fast

B) slow


C) intermediate

D) circular

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: A

Learning Outcome: 10-7

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

29) Which of the following types of muscle fibers are best adapted for prolonged contraction such as standing all day?

A) uninucleated fibers

B) striated fibers

C) fast fibers

D) slow fibers

E) intermediate fibers

Answer: D

Learning Outcome: 10-7

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
30) Muscular force can be adjusted to match different loads by

A) varying the frequency of action potentials in motor neurons.

B) recruiting larger motor units.

C) recruiting more motor units.

D) involving more muscle fibers in the contraction.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: E

Learning Outcome: 10-7

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
31) ________ muscle fibers pull in different directions, permitting different actions depending on stimulation.

A) Convergent

B) Parallel

C) Straight

D) Pennate

E) Circular

Answer: A

Learning Outcome: 11-1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
32) Contracting the gastrocnemius muscles to elevate the body on the toes involves a ________ lever.

A) first-class

B) second-class

C) third-class

D) fourth-class

E) fifth-class

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 11-2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

33) Muscles that insert on the olecranon process of the ulna can act to

A) flex the forearm.

B) extend the forearm.

C) abduct the forearm.

D) adduct the forearm.

E) extend the carpals.

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 11-3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

34) Which of the following is not a pennate muscle?

A) rectus femoris

B) extensor digitorum longus

C) deltoid

D) pectoralis

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: D

Learning Outcome: 11-4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

35) The temporalis muscle passes through the

A) alveolar processes of the maxillae and mandible.

B) tendinous band around the optic foramen.

C) epicranial aponeurosis.

D) zygomatic arch.

E) fascia surrounding the submandibular salivary gland.

Answer: D

Learning Outcome: 11-5

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

36) Ryan hears a loud noise and quickly turns his eyes sideways in the direction of the sound. To accomplish this action he must use his ________ muscles.

A) superior rectus

B) lateral rectus

C) inferior rectus

D) medial rectus

E) lateral and medial rectus

Answer: E

Learning Outcome: 11-5

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
37) During abdominal surgery, the surgeon makes a cut lateral to the linea alba. The muscle that would be cut is the

A) digastric.

B) external abdominal oblique.

C) rectus abdominis.

D) scalenus.

E) splenius.

Answer: C

Learning Outcome: 11-5

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

38) Pam's daughter is born cross-eyed. As she grows, the problem does not become any better. Her physician suggests cutting an eye muscle to bring the eyes into a more normal position. Which muscle will he cut?

A) inferior rectus

B) lateral rectus

C) medial rectus

D) superior rectus

E) superior oblique

Answer: C

Learning Outcome: 11-5

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application


39) Tom, a trumpet player, asks you which muscles he should develop in order to be a better trumpeter. What would you tell him?

A) the masseter and buccinator

B) the buccinator and orbicularis oris

C) the orbicularis oris and risorius

D) the risorius and zygomaticus

E) the levator labii and mentalis

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 11-5

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
40) When doing squat exercises, rising up from the squat to an erect position uses the

A) gluteal muscles.

B) biceps femoris.

C) rectus femoris.

D) semitendinosus.

E) all of the above

Answer: E

Learning Outcome: 11-6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

41) Walking requires the contraction of the

A) external and internal obliques.

B) tibialis anterior and the gastrocnemius.

C) biceps femoris and biceps brachii.

D) peroneus.

E) latissimus dorsi and the sartorius

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 11-6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

42) Muscles of the rotator cuff include all of the following except the

A) supraspinatus.

B) infraspinatus.

C) subscapularis.

D) teres minor.

E) rhomboid.

Answer: E

Learning Outcome: 11-6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
43) Which of these muscles produces lateral rotation at the hip?

A) gluteus maximus

B) piriformis

C) obturator externus

D) obturator internus

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: E

Learning Outcome: 11-6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

44) If the anterior compartment of the lower leg was suffering from "compartment syndrome," which of these muscles would be at risk of injury?

A) tibialis anterior and tibialis posterior

B) gastrocnemius and soleus

C) extensor digitorum longus

D) tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, and extensor digitorum longus

E) rectus femoris and the adjacent vastus muscles

Answer: D

Learning Outcome: 11-6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

45) Jill suffers a severe cut that severs the tendon that attaches the insertion of the flexor carpi ulnaris. As a result of this injury, what action is difficult for her to perform?

A) flex her forearm

B) flex her elbow

C) flex her ulna

D) flex and adduct her hand

E) flex her shoulder

Answer: D

Learning Outcome: 11-6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

46) The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system innervates ________ cells.

A) skeletal muscle

B) smooth muscle

C) heart muscle

D) glandular

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: E

Learning Outcome: 12-1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge

47) Most CNS neurons lack centrioles. This observation explains

A) why CNS neurons grow such long axons.

B) why CNS neurons cannot divide to regenerate damaged tissue.

C) the ability of neurons to generate an action potential.

D) the ability of neurons to communicate with each other.

E) the ability of neurons to produce a resting potential.

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 12-2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

48) How does blocking retrograde axoplasmic transport in an axon affect the activity of a neuron?

A) The neuron becomes unable to produce neurotransmitters.

B) The neuron becomes unable to produce action potentials.

C) The soma becomes unable to export products to the synaptic terminals.

D) The soma becomes unable to respond to changes in the distal end of the axon.

E) The neuron becomes unable to depolarize when stimulated.

Answer: D

Learning Outcome: 12-2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

49) Many medications introduced into the bloodstream cannot directly affect the neurons of the CNS because

A) oligodendrocytes form a continuous myelin sheath around the axons.

B) the endothelium of CNS capillaries forms a blood-brain barrier.

C) the neurolemma is impermeable to most molecules.

D) ependymal cells restrict the flow of interstitial fluid between the capillaries and the neurons.

E) astrocytes form a capsule around neurons.

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 12-3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

50) Extensive damage to oligodendrocytes in the CNS could result in

A) loss of the structural framework of the brain.

B) a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier.

C) inability to produce scar tissue at the site of an injury.

D) decreased production of cerebrospinal fluid.

E) loss of sensation and motor control.

Answer: E

Learning Outcome: 12-3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

51) After a stroke, what type of glial cell accumulates within the affected brain region?

A) Schwann cells

B) satellite cells

C) oligodendrocytes

D) microglia

E) ependymal cells

Answer: D

Learning Outcome: 12-3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

52) Which of the following is not true regarding the establishment of a neuron's resting potential?

A) Chemical and electrical forces both favor sodium ions entering the cell.

B) Electrical forces push sodium ions into the cell.

C) The chemical gradient for potassium ions tends to drive them out of the cell.

D) Ion pumps in the plasma membrane eject sodium ions as fast as they cross the membrane.

E) Resting membrane permeability to Na+ is very low.

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 12-4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

53) Graded potentials

A) produce an effect that increases with distance from the point of stimulation.

B) produce an effect that spreads actively across the membrane surface.

C) may be either a depolarization or a hyperpolarization.

D) are often all-or-none.

E) cause repolarization.

Answer: C

Learning Outcome: 12-4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

54) When potassium channels open and the ions diffuse through the membrane,

A) the inside of the membrane will become more positive.

B) the inside of the membrane will become more negative.

C) there will be almost no effect on transmembrane potential.

D) the membrane will become depolarized.

E) the membrane will depolarize to threshold.

Answer: B

Learning Outcome: 12-4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


55) Voltage-gated sodium channels have both an activation gate and a(n) ________ gate.

A) inactivation

B) ion

C) swinging



D) repolarization

E) threshold

Answer: A

Learning Outcome: 12-4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
56) If acetylcholine (ACh) causes inhibition of a postsynaptic neuron, to what type of membrane channel did the ACh bind?

A) mechanically-regulated channel

B) voltage-regulated sodium channel

C) voltage-regulated calcium channel

D) chemically-regulated potassium channel

E) chemically-regulated sodium channel

Answer: D

Learning Outcome: 12-4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

57) Puffer fish poison blocks voltage-gated sodium channels like a cork. What effect would this neurotoxin have on the function of neurons?

A) Neurons would depolarize more rapidly.

B) Action potentials would lack a repolarization phase.

C) The absolute refractory period would be shorter than normal.

D) The axon would be unable to generate action potentials.

E) None, because the chemically gated sodium channels would still function.

Answer: D

Learning Outcome: 12-5

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

58) A threshold stimulus is the

A) depolarization necessary to cause an action potential.

B) peak of an action potential.

C) hyperpolarization of an axon.

D) resting potential.

E) electrical current that crosses the synaptic cleft.

Answer: A

Learning Outcome: 12-5

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

59) If the chemically gated sodium channels in the postsynaptic membrane were completely blocked,

A) synaptic transmission would fail.

B) release of neurotransmitter would stop.

C) smaller action potentials would result.

D) the presynaptic membrane would be unable to reach threshold.

E) the presynaptic neuron would release a different neurotransmitter.

Answer: A

Learning Outcome: 12-7

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

60) Summation that results from the cumulative effect of multiple synapses at multiple places on the neuron is designated

A) spatial summation.

B) temporal summation.

C) inhibition of the impulse.

D) hyperpolarization.

E) impulse transmission.

Answer: A

Learning Outcome: 12-9



Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


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