Infant mortality (deaths within the first year of life per 1 000 live births) is 2.5 (2012). The average for the last five years has been 2.7. The table shows infant mortality for the period 1966-2010.
The Norwegian National Insurance Scheme is a universal scheme. This means that, as a general rule, membership in the scheme is compulsory for all those who either live or work in Norway, irrespective of nationality, place of residence, gender, age, sexual orientation, political conviction, religious belief, skin colour or whether the person in question is residing in a rural or an urban area. The scheme covers all nine traditional branches of social security set out in ILO Convention No. 102.
The social insurance schemes, by definition, target all vulnerable groups, as they are all designed to alleviate living conditions for persons who have experienced one or more specified contingencies that have been found to often lead to hardship, e.g. sickness, disability, unemployment, maternity.
In the following we will focus on the elderly. For a more comprehensive presentation of the Norwegian National Insurance Scheme, please see the survey entitled “The Norwegian Social Insurance Scheme”, which can be found at the following site: http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/AD/publikasjoner/veiledninger_brosjyrer/2013/Engelsk_2013.pdf
Reference is also made to Norway’s latest report on the implementation of ILO Convention No. 102.
The pension system has recently undergone reform. The reform has introduced the possibility of flexible drawing of old-age pensions for persons aged 62 to 75. Pensions may be drawn in full or in part. The drawing alternatives are 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100%. Work and pension may be combined, with no deduction being made to the pension. Pensions drawn with effect from 2011 and later are subject to a life expectancy adjustment. A pensioner who continues to work acquires additional pension rights up to and including the year in which he or she attains the age of 75.
In order to draw an old-age pension before the age of 67, acquired pension rights must be sufficient to secure a pension at the age of 67 – that is, at least equal to the minimum pension level for persons with an insurance period of 40 years.
For persons born before 1954, the old-age pension consists of a residence-based basic pension, an earnings-related supplementary pension, supplements for supported spouse and children and a special supplement securing a minimum pension level for persons with little or no supplementary pension (as before). Persons born in 1963 or later are primarily granted an earnings-related pension, but a residence-based guarantee pension provides a minimum pension level (similar to the old system, but with new rules for calculation). For persons born between 1954 and 1962, one part of the pension is calculated according to the old rules and the other part according to the new rules. The latter part increases for each year after 1954 up to the person’s year of birth.
According to the rules for persons born before 1954 (see above), persons who are insured for pension purposes and who have a total insurance period of minimum three years between the ages of 16 and 66 are entitled to a pension. For persons born in 1963 and later all pensionable income earned between the ages of 13 and 75 counts toward the income-based pension (no minimum requirement). However, a minimum insurance period of three years between the ages of 16 and 66 is required to be entitled to a guaranteed pension.
A full pension, according to the rules for persons born before 1954, requires an insurance period of minimum 40 years. If the insurance period is shorter, the pension is proportionately reduced. The full minimum pension as of 1 May 2013 is NOK 170 496 per year for single persons and NOK 315 408 for couples (NOK 157 704 for each).
Total expenditures on pensions under the National Insurance Scheme in 2012 were NOK 345 209 million. This amount represents approximately 35.4% of the combined state and national insurance budgets and 12% of GDP. The budget allocations to the national insurance scheme were NOK 96 575 million in 2012, which is equal to 28.0% of the total expenditures under the scheme.
In addition to the National Insurance Scheme, a supplementary allowance scheme has been introduced. This scheme is also non-discriminatory. The purpose of the scheme is to provide financial support for elderly persons with shorter periods of insurance under the National Insurance Scheme.
As mentioned above, the general National Insurance Scheme covers in principle all residents of Norway. However, because 40 years’ residence before the age of 67 is required in order to acquire a full residence-based pension, those who have lived in Norway for a shorter period may not qualify for a pension that is sufficient to live on. The new supplementary allowance scheme is intended to guarantee a minimum income for necessary means of subsistence for persons who have attained the age of 67 and who have inadequate pensions or other financial means of support because they have less than 40 years’ residence.
The maximum size of the allowance corresponds to the minimum social insurance pension, see above. The allowance is subject to a strict means test and is reduced if the person or his/her spouse or cohabitant has other income from work or capital assets or a Norwegian or foreign pension. The capital assets and other property are in principle taken into account.
The allowance is supplementary to the ordinary pension benefits under the National Insurance Scheme, but excludes persons who are in receipt of the ordinary full, i.e. unreduced, conventional benefit.
The allowance is not conditional on a qualifying period or completed period of insurance.
In 2012 there were 164 police personnel per 100 000 inhabitants.
In 2012 there were 372 regular judges and 125 deputy judges in the courts of first instance, 175 judges in the courts of second instance and 20 judges in the Supreme Court.
In 2011, 278 000 persons received 317 000 sanctions, a decrease of 5.7% and 4.9%, respectively, from the previous year. In total, 6.5% of the population 15 years or older received one or more sanctions. There was a decrease in the number of sanctions imposed by the courts. Of the total number of sanctions, 284 000 concerned misdemeanours, and 28 100 persons received 330 000 sanctions for crimes.
The statistics for 2011 show that 13% of all resident men over the age of 15 were sanctioned more than once, as compared with 7% of all women. Of those who were only sanctioned for misdemeanours, 74% were men, while the corresponding figure for men sanctioned for a crime was 85%. In 2011, 21 100 sanctions were imposed by the courts. The distribution of types of sanction imposed by the courts was almost the same as the previous year: 49% unconditional imprisonment, 29% conditional imprisonment, 12% community sentence and 9% fines.
In 2012, an average of 3 591 persons were imprisoned in Norway, a reduction of 0.9% from the previous year but an increase of 31% from 2002. On average in 2012, 2 494 persons were convicted prisoners, 82 were held in preventive detention, 945 were remanded in custody and 70 were imprisoned for non-payment of fines. The number of convicted prisoners fell from 2011 to 2012 by 2% and the number of prisoners on remand fell by 1.5%. The number of convicted prisoners increased by 27% from 2002 to 2012, and remanded prisoners by 41%. (The proportion of foreign nationals among remands in custody in 2002 was 21.5% and in 2012 had increased to 53.6%.) The proportion of female prisoners has remained fairly stable in recent years, at 5.6% of the prison population in 2012 as opposed to 6% in 2011 and 5.3% in 2002. Fifty-one young persons (under 18 years) were imprisoned in 2012, 58 in 2011, 64 in 2010, 80 in 2009 and 59 in 2005.8
In 2012, 273 000 crimes and 120 000 misdemeanours were reported to the police, an increase of 3.6% from 2011. There was a considerable increase in traffic misdemeanours (6.3%), offences for profit (4.7%) and narcotics crimes (7.3%). In 2012, 26 700 threats and other violent offences were reported to the police, almost 2% more than in the previous year. When the population increase is taken into account, the proportion of violent offences reported to the police has remained relatively stable since the turn of the millennium, about 5.4 per 1 000 inhabitants. In the last few years prior to 2012, the number of threats reported to the police has shown little change.
Norway has abolished the death penalty for all crimes both in peace and in war time.
More than 4 700 sexual offences were reported to the police in 2012. In 2012, 874 incidents of sexual intercourse with children and 124 incidents of incest (the same level as in the previous nine years) were reported to the police,.
Theft and other offences for profit made up almost 46% of crimes reported to the police in 2012. Almost 180 000 incidents of larceny and other offences for profit were reported to the police in 2012. After a general decline, there was an increase in several types of theft reported. These included theft from cafes and restaurants, bicycle theft and theft from shops. The total number of incidents of aggravated larceny from a person in a public place was 4 500 higher in 2012 than in 2011, and 9 600 higher than in 2010. Oslo contributed strongly to the increase in the total numbers of larcenies in Norway for 2012.
Six deaths were registered in prison in 2012. Six prisoner deaths were registered outside prison (on the way to hospital or on leave).