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一、科普知识类


(2013·福建卷·B)

  Your glasses may someday replace your smartphone, and some New Yorkers are ready for the switch. Some in the city can’t wait to try them on and use the maps and GPS that the futuristic eyewear is likely to include.

“I’d use it if I were hanging out with friends at 3 a.m. and going to the bar and wanted to see what was open,”said Walter Choo, 40, of Fort Greene.

The smartphone-like glasses will likely come out this year and cost between $250 and $600, the Times said, possibly including a variation of augmented(增强的)reality, a technology already available on smartphones and tablets(平板电脑)that overlays information onto the screen about one’s surroundings. So, for example, if you were walking down a street, indicators would pop up showing you the nearest coffee shop or directions could be plotted out and come into view right on the sidewalk in front of you.

“As far as a mainstream consumer product, this just isn’t something anybody needs,”said Sam Biddle, who writes for Gizmodo.com. “We’re accustomed to having one thing in our pocket to do all these things,”he added,“and the average consumer isn’t gonna be able to afford another device(装置)that’s hundreds and hundreds of dollars.”

9to5Google publisher Seth Weintraub, who has been reporting on the smartphone-like glasses since late last year, said he is confident that this type of wearable device will eventually be as common as smartphones.

“It’s just like smartphones 10 years ago,”Weintraub said.“A few people started getting emails on their phones,and people thought that was crazy.Same kind of thing.We see people bending their heads to look at their smartphones,and it’s unnatural,”he said.“There’s gonna be improvements to that,and this a step there.”

【文章大意】作者介绍了一种迷你手机型的眼镜的用途,以及不同的人对它的不同看法。

60.One of the possible functions of the smartphone-like glasses is to    .

A.program the opening hours of a bar

B.supply you with a picture of the future

C.provide information about your surroundings

D.update the maps and GPS in your smartphones

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第三段的“...information onto the screen about one’s surroundings.”可知,这种迷你手机型的眼镜有地图和GPS装置,可以在屏幕上显示你周围环境的信息,故答案选C。A、D表述错误;B项没有提到。

61.The underlined phrase“pop up”in the third paragraph probably means“    ”.

A.develop rapidly

B.get round quickly

C.appear immediately

D.go over automatically

【解析】选C。根据上句可知,这种眼镜的屏幕上会显示你周围环境的信息,因此当你逛街的时候,指示器会立刻为你指明最近的咖啡馆并绘制方向路线。

62.According to Sam Biddle,the smartphone-like glasses are    .

A.necessary for teenagers

B.attractive to New Yorkers

C.available to people worldwide

D.expensive for average consumers

【解析】选D。推理判断题。根据Sam Biddle的话“...be able to afford another device that’s hundreds and hundreds of dollars.”可知,他认为这种眼镜对于普通消费者来说是昂贵的,故答案选D。

63.We can learn from the last two paragraphs that the smartphone-like glasses    .

A.may have a potential market

B.are as common as smartphones

C.are popular among young adults

D.will be improved by a new technology

【解析】选A。段落大意题。最后两段是用Weintraub的观点来说明这种手机将会有很大的市场。B、C项还没有实现;D项没有提及。


(2013·山东卷·C)

You can’t always predict a heavy rain or remember your umbrella. But designer Mikhail Belyaev doesn’t think that forgetting to check the weather forecast before heading out should result in you getting wet. That’s why he created Lampbrella, a lamp post with its own rain-sensing umbrella.

The designer says he came up with the idea after watching people get wet on streets in Russia. “Once, I was driving on a central Saint Petersburg street and saw the street lamps lighting up people trying to hide from the rain. I thought it would be appropriate to have a canopy(伞篷)built into a street lamp.”he said.

The Lampbrella is a standard-looking street lamp fitted with an umbrella canopy. It has a built-in electric motor which can open or close the umbrella on demand.Sensors(传感器)then ensure that the umbrella offers pedestrians shelter whenever it starts raining.

In addition to the rain sensor, there’s also a 360°motion sensor on the fiberglass street lamp which detects whether anyone is using the Lampbrella.After three minutes of not being used the canopy is closed.

According to the designer, the Lampbrella would move at a relatively low speed, so as not to cause harm to the pedestrians.Besides, it would be grounded to protect from possible lightning strike. Each Lampbrella would offer enough shelter for several people. Being installed(安装)at 2 metres off the ground, it would only be a danger for the tallest of pedestrians.

While there are no plans to take the Lampbrella into production, Belyaev says he recently introduced his creation to one Moscow Department, and insists his creation could be installed on any street where a lot of people walk but there are no canopies to provide shelter.

【文章大意】本文是一篇科技说明文, 主要介绍了设计师Belyaev的一项创造Lampbrella及它的工作原理、安全性、应用前景等方面的知识。

66.For what purpose did Belyaev create the Lampbrella?

A.To predict a heavy rain.

B.To check the weather forecast.

C.To protect people from the rain.

D.To remind people to take an umbrella.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第一段第二句和第三句...Belyaev doesn’t think that forgetting to check the weather forecast....That’s why he created Lampbrella.可知他创造Lampbrella的目的是为了防止人们被雨淋, 所以选C。

67.What do we know from Belyaev’s words in Paragraph 2?

A.His creation was inspired by an experience.

B.It rains a lot in the city of Saint Petersburg.

C.Street lamps are protected by canopies.

D.He enjoyed taking walks in the rain.

【解析】选A。推理判断题。根据第二段可知他的这种想法是在看到俄罗斯圣彼得堡一个中心街道上人们被雨淋时产生的。所以选A。

68.Which of the following shows how the Lampbrella works?

A.motor→canopy→sensors

B.sensors→motor→canopy

C.motor→sensors→canopy

D.canopy→motor→sensors

【解析】选B。推理判断题。根据第三段, 这种Lampbrella是一个被配备了伞篷(canopy)的路灯杆, 它有一个内置的电动机(electric motor)和几个传感器(sensors), 可以在下雨时给行人提供保护。首先是传感器感知有雨, 然后通过电动机给伞篷提供动力。所以选B。

69.What does Paragraph 5 mainly tell us about the Lampbrella?

A.Its moving speed. B.Its appearance.

C.Its installation. D.Its safety.

【解析】选D。主旨大意题。根据本段中的...the Lampbrella would move at a relatively low speed, ...it would be grounded to protect from possible lightning strike.及Being installed at 2 metres off the ground...可知, 本段主要在强调Lampbrella的安全性, 所以选D。

70.What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

A.The designer will open a company to promote his product.

B.The Lampbrella could be put into immediate production.

C.The designer is confident that his creation is practical.

D.The Lampbrella would be put on show in Moscow.

【解析】选C。推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“insists his creation could be installed on any street where...”可知, 他认为自己的产品是很实用的。而A、D两项没提, B项错在immediate, 所以选C。

(2013·浙江卷·B)

Below is a selection from a popular science book.

If blood is red,why are veins(静脉)blue?

Actually, veins are not blue at all. They are more of a clear, yellowish colour. Although blood looks red when it’s outside the body, when it’s sitting in a vein near the surface of the skin, it’s more of a dark reddish purple colour. At the right depth, these blood-filled veins reflect less red light than the surrounding skin, making them look blue by comparison.



Which works harder, your heart or your brain?

That kind of depends on whether you’re busy thinking or busy exercising. Your heart works up to three times harder during exercise, and shifts enough blood over a lifetime to fill a supertanker. But, in the long run, your brain probably tips it, because even when you’re sitting still your brain is using twice as much energy as your heart, and it takes four to five times as much blood to feed it.



Why do teeth fall out, and why don’t they grow back in grown-ups?

Baby(or“milk”)teeth do not last long; they fall out to make room for bigger, stronger adult teeth later on. Adult teeth fall out when they become damaged, decayed and infected by bacteria. Once this second set of teeth has grown in, you’re done. When they’re gone, they’re gone. This is because nature figures you’re set for life, and what controls regrowth of your teeth switches off.



Do old people shrink as they age?

Yes and no. Many people do get shorter as they age. But, when they do, it isn’t because they’re shrinking all over. They simply lose height as their spine(脊柱)becomes shorter and more curved due to disuse and the effects of gravity(重力). Many(but not all)men and women do lose height as they get older. Men lose an average of 3~4 cm in height as they age, while women may lose 5 cm or more. If you live to be 200 years old, would you keep shrinking till you were, like 60 cm tall, like a little boy again? No, because old people don’t really shrink! It is not that they are growing backwards—their legs, arms and backbones getting shorter. When they do get shorter, it’s because the spine has shortened a little. Or, more often, become more bent and curved.



Why does spinning make you dizzy(眩晕的)?

Because your brain gets confused between what you’re seeing and what you’re feeling. The brain senses that you’re spinning using special gravity-and-motion-sensing organs in your inner ear, which work together with your eyes to keep your vision and balance stable. But when you suddenly stop spinning the system goes out of control, and your brain thinks you’re moving while you’re not!



Where do feelings and emotions come from?

Mostly from an ancient part of the brain called the limbic system. All mammals have this brain area—from mice to dogs, cats, and humans. So all mammals feel basic emotions like fear, pain and pleasure. But since human feelings also involve other, newer bits of the brain, we feel more complex emotions than any other animal on this planet.



If exercise wears you out, how can it be good for you?

Because our bodies adapt to everything we do to them. And as far as your body is concerned, it’s“use it or lose it”! It’s not that exercise makes you healthy; it’s more that a lack of exercise leaves your body weak and easily affected by disease.

【文章大意】人体很复杂,有很多奥秘。对此,你知道多少?本文可以告诉你。

46.What is the colour of blood in a vein near the surface of the skin?

A. Blue. B. Right yellow.

C. Red. D. Dark reddish purple.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。文章第一段第三句明确地告诉我们,静脉血管中血液的颜色为dark reddish purple。故选D。

47.Why do some old people look a little shrunken as they age?

A.Because their spine is in active use.

B.Because they are more easily affected by gravity.

C.Because they keep growing backwards.

D.Because their spine becomes more bent.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。从文章第四段可以看出,老年人萎缩是由脊柱使用不当和重力的作用导致的脊柱变短和弯曲所造成的。故选D。

48.Which of the following statements about our brain is true?

A.In the long run, our brain probably works harder than our heart.

B.When our brain senses the spinning, we will feel dizzy.

C.The brains of the other mammals are as complex as those of humans.

D.Our feelings and emotions come from the most developed area in our brain.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。文章第二段最后一句明确地告诉我们,长远来看,我们的大脑比心脏工作量更大,因为即使你坐着不动,大脑需要的能量也是心脏的两倍,需要的血液量是心脏的4到5倍。第五段告诉我们,人之所以会眩晕,是因为大脑对旋转的误解,我们已经停止旋转,大脑错误地认为我们仍然在旋转。从倒数第二段可以看出人脑与其他动物大脑的区别在于人脑更复杂;同一段中也可以看出,our feelings and emotions来自人脑最原始的部分,该部分与动物的大脑相同。故选A。

49.What is the main purpose of the selection?

A.To give advice on how to stay healthy.

B.To provide information about our body.

C.To challenge new findings in medical research.

D.To report the latest discoveries in medical science.

【解析】选B。归纳总结题。整篇文章都是在讲述关于人的方方面面,所以只有B项才可以概括全文。而其他选项要么文章根本没有涉及,要么只是某段的意思,而不能概括全文。故选B。

(2013·浙江卷·C)

The baby monkey is much more developed at birth than the human baby. Almost from the moment it is born, the baby monkey can move around and hold tightly to its mother. During the first few days of its life the baby will approach and hold onto almost any large, warm, and soft object in its environment, particularly if that object also gives it milk. After a week or so, however, the baby monkey begins to avoid newcomers and focuses its attentions on“mother”—the real mother or the mother-substitute(母亲替代物).

During the first two weeks of its life warmth is perhaps the most important psychological(心理的)thing that a monkey mother has to give to its baby. The Harlows,a couple who are both psychologists, discovered this fact by offering baby monkeys a choice of two types of mother-substitutes——one covered with cloth and one made of bare wire.If the two artificial mothers were both the same temperature, the little monkeys always preferred the cloth mother. However, if the wire model was heated, while the cloth model was cool, for the first two weeks after birth the baby monkeys picked the warm wire mother-substitutes as their favorites. Thereafter they switched and spent most of their time on the more comfortable cloth mother.

Why is cloth preferable to bare wire? Something that the Harlows called contact(接触)comfort seems to be the answer, and a most powerful influence it is. Baby monkeys spend much of their time rubbing against their mothers’skins, putting themselves in as close contact with the parent as they can. Whenever the young animal is frightened, disturbed, or annoyed, it typically rushes to its mother and rubs itself against her body. Wire doesn’t“rub”as well as does soft cloth. Prolonged(长时间的)“contact comfort”with a cloth mother appears to give the babies confidence and is much more rewarding to them than is either warmth or milk.

According to the Harlows, the basic quality of a baby’s love for its mother istrust. If the baby is put into an unfamiliar playroom without its mother, the baby ignores the toys no matter how interesting they might be. It screams in terror and curls up into a furry little ball. If its cloth mother is now introduced into the playroom, the baby rushes to it and holds onto it for dear life. After a few minutes of contact comfort, it obviously begins to feel more secure. It then climbs down from the mother-substitute and begins to explore the toys, but often rushes back for a deep embrace(拥抱)as if to make sure that its mother is still there and that all is well. Bit by bit its fears of the new environment are gone and it spends more and more time playing with the toys and less time holding onto“its mother.”

【文章大意】猴子很聪明,猴子的幼崽甚至比婴儿都聪明。在对猴子幼崽的观察研究中,科学家发现两个因素特别重要,它们是warmth和contact comfort。

50.Psychologically, what does the baby monkey desire most during the first two weeks of its life?

A.Warmth  B.Milk  C.Contact  D.Trust

【解析】选A。细节理解题。文章的第二段第一句明确地告诉我们,猴子幼崽在出生后的前两周的时间里最需要的就是warmth,该段的实验也证明了这一点。故选A。

51.After the first two weeks of their life, baby monkeys prefer the cloth mother to the wire mother because the former is   .

A.larger in size

B.closer to them

C.less frightening and less disturbing

D.more comfortable to rub against

【解析】选D。细节理解题。从文章的第三段可知,猴子幼崽之所以喜欢cloth mother是因为接触舒服,因为这种接触可以给它们自信,它比温暖、牛奶更有益。故选D。

52.What does the baby monkey probably gain from prolonged“contact comfort”?

A.Attention B.Softness

C.Confidence D.Interest

【解析】选C。细节理解题。文章第三段最后一句明确指出,长时间的舒服接触可以给猴子幼崽自信。故选C。

53.It can be inferred that when the baby monkey feels secure,   .

A.it frequently rushes back for a deep embrace when exploring the toys

B.it spends more time screaming to get rewards

C.it is less attracted to the toys though they are interesting

D.it cares less about whether its mother is still around

【解析】选D。推理判断题。从文章的最后一段可以推断出,当猴子幼崽感到害怕、不安全时,会经常到妈妈的怀抱来;而当它们确信已经安全时,就贪玩、而不再需要拥抱。故选D。

54.The main purpose of the passage is to   .

A.give the reasons for the experiment

B.present the findings of the experiment

C.introduce the method of the experiment

D.describe the process of the experiment

【解析】选B。推理判断题。整篇文章都在向人们讲述一对科学家夫妇的研究发现以及通过实验对他们的发现提供的佐证,而无其他目的。故选B。

(2013·四川卷·E)

Fear may be felt in the heart as well as in the head, according to a study that has found a link between the cycles of a beating heart and the chance of someone feeling fear.

Tests on healthy volunteers found that they were more likely to feel a sense of fear at the moment when their hearts are contracting(收缩)and pumping blood around their bodies, compared with the point when the heartbeat is relaxed. Scientists say the results suggest that the heart is able to influence how the brain responds to a fearful event, depending on which point it is at in its regular cycle of contraction and relaxation.

Sarah Garfinkel at the Brighton and Sussex Medical School said: “Our study shows for the first time that the way in which we deal with fear is different depending on when we see fearful pictures in relation to our heart.”

The study tested 20 healthy volunteers on their reactions to fear as they were shown pictures of fearful faces.Dr Garfinkel said, “The study showed that fearful faces are better noticed when the heart is pumping than when it is relaxed. Thus our hearts can also affect what we see and what we don’t see—and guide whether we see fear.”

To further understand this relationship, the scientists also used a brain scanner(扫描仪)to show how the brain influences the way the heart changes a person’s feeling of fear.

“We have found an important mechanism by which the heart and brain‘speak’to each other to change our feelings and reduce fear, ”Dr Garfinkel said.

“We hope that by increasing our understanding about how fear is dealt with and ways that it could be reduced, we may be able to develop more successful treatments for anxiety disorders, and also for those who may be suffering from serious stress disorder.”

【文章大意】这是一篇科普说明文。说明了一项研究的结果:心脏和大脑一样都可以感受恐惧,而且发现了心脏的跳动循环和一个人感到恐惧的可能性之间的联系。

47.What is the finding of the study?

A.One’s heart affects how he feels fear.

B.Fear is a result of one’s relaxed heartbeat.

C.Fear has something to do with one’s health.

D.One’s fast heartbeats are likely to cause fear.

【解析】选A。主旨大意题。根据第一段的内容可知研究的结果:心脏的跳动循环和感到恐惧之间存在着联系,心脏收缩时更可能产生恐惧感。故选A项。

48.The study was carried out by analyzing   .

A.volunteers’ heartbeats when they saw terrible pictures

B.the time volunteers saw fearful pictures and their health conditions

C.volunteers’ reactions to horrible pictures and data from their brain scans

D.different pictures shown to volunteers and their heart-brain communication

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第四段的第一句话可知研究观察的是当志愿者被展示给一些恐怖面孔时他们对于恐惧的反应是怎样的;再结合第五段的第一句话可知科学家们是通过观察大脑扫描仪来发现大脑是如何影响心脏改变一个人恐惧感的方式。故可以得出C项为正确答案。

49.Which of the following is closest in meaning to“mechanism”in Paragraph 6?

A.Order.   B.System. C.Machine. D.Treatment.

【解析】选B。词义猜测题。结合后面的定语从句的内容:通过这个“mechanism”大脑和心脏之间相互交流来改变我们的情感和减少恐惧。由此可推知这应该是一种途径,一种体系,故选B项。

50.This study may contribute to   .

A.treating anxiety and stress better

B.explaining the cycle of fear and anxiety

C.finding the key to the heart-brain communication

D.understanding different fears in our hearts and heads

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据最后一段中的最后一句话“...we may be able to develop more successful treatments for anxiety disorders, and also for those who may be suffering from serious stress disorder.”可知这项研究通过加深我们对如何处理恐惧以及减轻恐惧的方式的理解,从而有可能研究出治疗anxiety和stress更成功的办法。

(2013·重庆卷·C)

Almost every machine with moving parts has wheels, yet no one knows exactly when the first wheel was invented or what it was used for. We do know, however, that they existed over 5, 500 years ago in ancient Asia.

The oldest known transport wheel was discovered in 2002 in Slovenia. It is over 5, 100 years old. Evidence suggests that wheels for transport didn’t become popular for a while, though. This could be because animals did a perfectly good job of carrying farming tools and humans around.

But it could also be because of a difficult situation. While wheels need to roll on smooth surfaces, roads with smooth surfaces weren’t going to be constructed until there was plenty of demand for them. Eventually, road surfaces did become smoother, but this difficult situation appeared again a few centuries later. There had been no important changes in wheel and vehicle design before the arrival of modern road design.

In the mid-1700s, a Frenchman came up with a new design of road—a base layer(层)of large stones covered with a thin layer of smaller stones. A Scotsman improved on this design in the 1820s and a strong, lasting road surface became a reality. At around the same time, metal hubs(the central part of a wheel)came into being, followed by the pneumatics tyre(充气轮胎)in 1846. Alloy wheels were invented in 1967, sixty years after the appearance of tarmacked roads(柏油路). As wheel design took off, vehicles got faster and faster.

【文章大意】本文主要讲述了运输用的轮子的发展史。

64.What might explain why transport wheels didn’t become popular for some time?

A.Few knew how to use transport wheels.

B.Humans carried farming tools just as well.

C.Animals were a good means of transport.

D.The existence of transport wheels was not known.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第二段最后一句话可知“动物是相当好的运输方式”,所以运输用的轮子有一段时间没有流行起来。

65.What do we know about road design from the passage?

A.It was easier than wheel design.

B.It improved after big changes in vehicle design.

C.It was promoted by fast-moving vehicles.

D.It provided conditions for wheel design to develop.

【解析】选D。推理判断题。根据第三段最后一句“在现代道路设计到来之前轮子和车辆设计没有重大改变”可知是道路设计为轮子的发展提供了条件。

66.How is the last paragraph mainly developed?

A.By giving examples.

B.By making comparisons.

C.By following time order.

D.By making classifications.

【解析】选C。篇章结构题。由最后一段的“In the mid-1700s...;in the 1820s...;in 1846...;in 1967...”可看出此段是按时间顺序来写的。

67.What is the passage mainly about?

A.The beginning of road design.

B.The development of transport wheels.

C.The history of public transport.

D.The invention of fast-moving vehicles.

【解析】选B。主旨大意题。本文主要讲述了运输用的轮子的发展史。

(2013·重庆卷·D)

Not all bodies of water are so evidently alive as the Atlantic Ocean, an S-shaped body of water covering 33 million square miles. The Atlantic has, in a sense, replaced the Mediterranean as the inland sea of Western civilization. Unlike real inland seas, which seem strangely still, the Atlantic is rich in oceanic liveliness. It is perhaps not surprising that its vitality has been much written about by ancient poets.

“Storm at Sea”, a short poem written around 700, is generally regarded as one of mankind’s earliest artistic representations of the Atlantic.

When the wind is from the west

All the waves that cannot rest

To the east must thunder on

Where the bright tree of the sun

Is rooted in the ocean’s breast.

As the poem suggests, the Atlantic is never dead and dull. It is an ocean that moves, impressively and endlessly. It makes all kinds of noise—it is forever thundering, boiling, crashing, and whistling.

It is easy to imagine the Atlantic trying to draw breath—perhaps not so noticeably out in mid-ocean, but where it meets land, its waters bathing up and down a sandy beach. It mimics(模仿)nearly perfectly the steady breathing of a living creature. It is filled with symbiotic existences, too; unimaginable quantities of creatures, little and large alike, mix within its depths in a kind of oceanic harmony, giving to the waters a feeling of heartbeat, a kind of sub-ocean vitality. And it has a psychology. It has personalities: sometimes peaceful and pleasant, on rare occasions rough and wild; always it is strong and striking.

【文章大意】本文主要以拟人等手法描述了大西洋。

68.Unlike real inland seas, the Atlantic Ocean is   .

A.always energetic

B.lacking in liveliness

C.shaped like a square

D.favored by ancient poets

【解析】选A。细节理解题。由第一段的倒数第二句“与那些看起来非常平静的内海不同,大西洋具有海洋的活跃”可知选A。

69.What is the purpose of using the poem“Storm at Sea”in the passage?

A.To describe the movement of the waves.

B.To show the strength of the storm.

C.To represent the power of the ocean.

D.To prove the vastness of the sea.

【解析】选C。推理判断题。第一段最后一句“很多古代诗人都描述过它的活力,这一点不足为奇”为一承上启下的过渡句,故下面的“Storm at Sea”这首诗也是来说明大西洋的力量的。

70.What does the underlined word“symbiotic”mean?

A.Living together.    B.Growing fast.

C.Moving harmoniously. D.Breathing peacefully.

【解析】选A。猜测词义题。根据后面的很多大的小的生物混合在一起可以判断此词是“共生的”含义。

71.In the last paragraph, the Atlantic is compared to   .

A.a beautiful and poetic place

B.a flesh and blood person

C.a wonderful world

D.a lovely animal

【解析】选B。推理判断题。根据文章最后一段的“...breath...;And it has a psychology;It has personalities.”作者描述大西洋“有呼吸,有心理,有个性”可以推断大西洋被比喻成“一个有血有肉的人”。

(2013·辽宁卷·C)

Here is an astonishing and significant fact: Mental work alone can’t make us tired. It sounds absurd. But a few years ago,scientists tried to find out how long the human brain could labor without reaching a stage of fatigue(疲劳). To the amazement of these scientists, they discovered that blood passing through the brain, when it is active, shows no fatigue at all!If we took a drop of blood from a day laborer, we would find it full of fatigue toxins(毒素)and fatigue products. But if we took blood from the brain of an Albert Einstein, it would show no fatigue toxins at the end of the day.

So far as the brain is concerned, it can work as well and swiftly at the end of eight or even twelve hours of effort as at the beginning. The brain is totally tireless. So what makes us tired?

Some scientists declare that most of our fatigue comes from our mental and emotional(情感的)attitudes. One of England’s most outstanding scientists, J. A. Hadfield, says, “The greater part of the fatigue from which we suffer is of mental origin. In fact, fatigue of purely physical origin is rare. ”Dr. Brill, a famous American scientist, goes even further. He declares, “One hundred percent of the fatigue of a sitting worker in good health is due to emotional problems. ”

What kinds of emotions make sitting workers tired? Joy? Satisfaction? No! A feeling of being bored, anger, anxiety, tenseness, worry, a feeling of not being appreciated—those are the emotions that tire sitting workers. Hard work by itself seldom causes fatigue. We get tired because our emotions produce nervousness in the body.

【文章大意】本文介绍了科学家最新发现: 脑力劳动不会使人疲劳,使人疲劳的是人的情感态度。

64.What surprised the scientists a few years ago?

A.Fatigue toxins could hardly be found in a laborer’s blood.

B.Albert Einstein didn’t feel worn out after a day’s work.

C.The brain could work for many hours without fatigue.

D.A mental worker’s blood was filled with fatigue toxins.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。文章第二段中提到...it can work as well and swiftly at the end of eight or even twelve hours of effort as at the beginning. The brain is totally tireless.。由此可以判断。

65.According to the author, which of the following can make sitting workers tired?

A.Challenging mental work.

B.Unpleasant emotions.

C.Endless tasks.

D.Physical labor.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。文章的最后一段提到A feeling of being bored, anger, anxiety, tenseness, worry, a feeling of not being appreciated—those are the emotions that tire sitting workers.。这些都属于unpleasant emotions。

66.What’s the author’s attitude towards the scientists’ ideas?

A.He agrees with them.

B.He doubts them.

C.He argues against them.

D.He hesitates to accept them.

【解析】选A。观点态度题。通读全文我们可以发现作者对于科学家们的这一发现持赞成态度,作者提出了很多的论据来支持这一观点。故选A。

67.We can infer from the passage that in order to stay energetic, sitting workers need to   .

A.have some good food B.enjoy their work

C.exercise regularly D.discover fatigue toxins

【解析】选B。推理判断题。文章的观点是脑力劳动不会使人疲劳,所以sitting workers可以通过快乐地工作来保持良好的精神状态。

(2013·湖北卷·E)

A German study suggests that people who were too optimistic about their future actually faced greater risk of disability or death within 10 years than those pessimists who expected their future to be worse.

The paper, published this March inPsychology and Aging, examined health and welfare surveys from roughly 40,000 Germans between ages 18 and 96.The surveys were conducted every year from 1993 to 2003.

Survey respondents(受访者)were asked to estimate their present and future life satisfaction on a scale of 0 to 10,among other questions.

The researchers found that young adults(age 18 to 39)routinely overestimated their future life satisfaction,while middle-aged adults(age 40 to 64)more accurately predicted how they would feel in the future.Adults of 65 and older,however,were far more likely to underestimate their future life satisfaction.Not only did they feel more satisfied than they thought they would,the older pessimists seemed to suffer a lower ratio(比率)of disability and death for the study period.

“We observed that being too optimistic in predicting a better future than actually observed was associated with a greater risk of disability and a greater risk of death within the following decade,”wrote Frieder R.Lang,a professor at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.

Lang and his colleagues believed that people who were pessimistic about their future may be more careful about their actions than people who expected a rosy future.

“Seeing a dark future may encourage positive evaluations of the actual self and may contribute to taking improved precautions(预防措施),”the authors wrote.

Surprisingly,compared with those in poor health or who had low incomes,respondents who enjoyed good health or income were associated with expecting a greater decline.Also,the researchers said that higher income was related to a greater risk of disability.

The authors of the study noted that there were limitations to their conclusions.Illness, medical treatment and personal loss could also have driven health outcomes.

However, the researchers said a pattern was clear. “We found that from early to late adulthood,individuals adapt their expectations of future life satisfaction from optimistic,to accurate,to pessimistic,”the authors concluded.

【文章大意】德国的一项研究表明,对未来过度乐观的人比那些对未来悲观的人在未来的十年内更容易伤残或死亡。随着年龄的增长一个人对未来的期望会从乐观的态度转变为准确判断,最后到悲观的态度。

67. According to the study, who made the most accurate prediction of their future life satisfaction?

A. Optimistic adults.

B. Middle-aged adults.

C. Adults in poor health.

D. Adults of lower income.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第四段的调查结果可以看出young adults(age 18 to 39)会高估未来的生活满意度;而middle-aged adults(age 40 to 64)会准确地预测他们的生活满意度;adults of 65 and older更容易低估他们的生活满意度。故选B项。

68. Pessimism may be positive in some way because it causes people   .

A.to fully enjoy their present life

B.to estimate their contribution accurately

C.to take measures against potential risks

D.to value health more highly than wealth

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第七段中的“Seeing a dark future may encourage positive evaluations of the actual self and may contribute to taking improved precautions可知低估满意度的人们会改善他们的预防措施,C项与文章意思吻合,故选C项。

69. How do people of higher income see their future?

A.They will earn less money.

B.They will become pessimistic.

C.They will suffer mental illness.

D.They will have less time to enjoy life.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第八段中的respondents who enjoyed good health or income were associated with expecting a greater decline.可知较高收入的人预计他们的收入会大大下降。故选A项。

70. What is the clear conclusion of the study?

A.Pessimism guarantees chances of survival.

B.Good financial condition leads to good health.

C.Medical treatment determines health outcomes.

D. Expectations of future life satisfaction decline with age.

【解析】选D。推理判断题。根据最后一段中的We found that from early to late adulthood,individuals adapt their expectations of future life satisfaction from optimistic,to accurate,to pessimistic可知随着年龄的增长一个人对未来的期望会从乐观的态度转变为准确判断,最后到悲观的态度。也就是说期望值会下降。

(2013·江西卷·B)

When international aid is given,steps must be taken to ensure(确保)that the aid reaches the people for whom it is intended.The way to achieve this may not be simple.It is very difficult for a nation to give help directly to people in another nation.The United Nations Organization(UNO)could undertake to direct the distribution of aid.Here however rises the problem of costs.Also tied with this is time.Perhaps the UNO could set up a body of devoted men and women in every country who can speedily distribute aid to victims of floods and earthquakes.

More than the help that one nation can give to another during a disaster,it would be more effective to give other forms of help during normal times.A common proverb says,“Give me a fish and I eat for a day,teach me to fish and I eat for a lifetime.”If we follow this wise saying,it would be right to teach people from less developed nations to take care of themselves.For example,a country could share its technology with another.This could be in simple areas like agriculture or in more complex areas like medical and health care or even in building satellites.Even a small country is able to help less developed nations.Sometime what is taken for granted,like the setting up of a water purification plant or the administration of a school,could be useful for countries which are looking about to solve common problems.It does not cost much to share such simple things.Exchange students could be attached for a number of months or years and learn the required craft while on the site.They can then take their knowledge back to their homelands and if necessary come back from time to time to clear doubts or to update themselves.Such aid will be truly helpful and there is no chance of it being temporary or of it falling into the wrong hands.

Many countries run extensive courses in all sorts of skills.It will not cost much to include deserving foreigners in these courses. Besides giving effective help to the countries concerned, there is also the build-up of friendships to consider. Giving direct help by giving materials may be effective in the short run and must continue to be given in the event of emergencies. However, in the long run what is really effective would be the sharing of knowledge.

【文章大意】这是一篇说明文,指出了如何进行国际救援,也暗示了国际救援面临着一些困难。

61. According to the author, how could international aid reach the victims in time?

A. By solving the cost problems.

B. By solving the transportation problems.

C. By setting up a body of devoted people in every country.

D. By relying on the direct distribution of the UNO.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。从第一段最后一句“Perhaps the UNO could set up a body of devoted men and women in every country who can speedily distribute aid to victims of floods and earthquakes.”可知,在每个国家,由一些有奉献精神的人建立一个群体组织进行国际救援。

62. What does the author try to express in the underlined sentence?

A. Providing food is vital.

B. Learning to fish is helpful.

C. Teaching skills is essential.

D. Looking after others is important.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。这句话说的是“授之以渔不如授之以鱼”的道理。从后面一句“If we follow this wise saying,it would be right to teach people from less developed nations to take care of themselves.”可知,教欠发达国家的人照顾好自己是正确的,说明了教授技能是必要的。

63. The second paragraph is developed mainly   .

A. by example B. by process

C. by comparison D. by contrast

【解析】选A。段落主旨题。从第二段的“For example,...”可知,是通过举例子的方法展开第二段的。

64. Which aid is likely to fall into the wrong hands?

A. A medical team. B. An exchange program.

C. A water plant. D. Financial support.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。采用排除法。第二段最后一句“Such aid will be truly helpful and there is no chance of it being temporary or of it falling into the wrong hands.”中,提到了“这样的援助真的很有用”。A、B、C三项都涉及了,只有D项未涉及。故选D。

65. What can we infer about international aid from the passage?

A. It is facing difficulties.

B. It is unnecessary during normal times.

C. It should be given in the form of materials.

D. It has gained support from developed countries.

【解析】选A。推理判断题。从最后一段可知,提到了在救援过程中要考虑的事情和长期要做的事情等,暗示了国际救援面临着一些困难。

(2013·江苏卷·C)



If a diver surfaces too quickly, he may suffer the bends. Nitrogen(氮)dissolved(溶解)in his blood is suddenly liberated by the reduction of pressure. The consequence, if the bubbles(气泡)accumulate in a joint, is sharp pain and a bent body—thus the name. If the bubbles form in his lungs or his brain, the consequence can be death.

  Other air-breathing animals also suffer this decompression(减压)sickness if they surface too fast: whales, for example.And so, long ago, did ichthyosaurs. That these ancient sea animals got the bends can be seen from their bones. If bubbles of nitrogen form inside the bone they can cut off its blood supply. This kills the cells in the bone, and consequently weakens it, sometimes to the point of collapse.Fossil(化石)bones that have caved in on themselves are thus a sign that the animal once had the bends.

  Bruce Rothschild of the University of Kansas knew all this when he began a study of ichthyosaur bones to find out how widespread the problem was in the past. What he particularly wanted to investigate was how ichthyosaurs adapted to the problem of decompression over the 150 million years.To this end, he and his colleagues traveled the world’s natural-history museums, looking at hundreds of ichthyosaurs from the Triassic period and from the later Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.

When he started, he assumed that signs of the bends would be rarer in younger fossils, reflecting their gradual evolution of measures to deal with decompression. Instead, he was astonished to discover the opposite. More than 15% of Jurassic and Cretaceous ichthyosaurs had suffered the bends before they died, but not a single Triassic specimen(标本)showed evidence of that sort of injury.

  If ichthyosaurs did evolve an anti-decompression means, they clearly did so quickly—and, most strangely, they lost it afterwards.But that is not what Dr Rothschild thinks happened. He suspects it was evolution in other animals that caused the change.

  Whales that suffer the bends often do so because they have surfaced to escape a predator(捕食动物)such as a large shark.One of the features of Jurassic oceans was an abundance of large sharks and crocodiles, both of which were fond of ichthyosaur lunches. Triassic oceans, by contrast,were mercifully shark-and crocodile-free. In the Triassic, then, ichthyosaurs were top of the food chain. In the Jurassic and Cretaceous, hey were prey(猎物)as well as predator—and often had to make a speedy exit as a result.

【文章大意】科普知识类文章。文章主要介绍Rothschild教授关于鱼龙类生物在近1亿5千万年里如何适应减压问题的研究。在开始研究时,他原本认为年轻化石里弯曲的迹象会比老化石里的少,因为这标志着鱼龙类生物逐渐进化出反减压器官,然而他的研究结果得出相反的结论。

61. Which of the following is a typical symptom of the bends?

A. A twisted body.

B. A gradual decrease in blood supply.

C. A sudden release of nitrogen in blood.

D. A drop in blood pressure.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。第一段第三句提到遭遇bend的症状是“sharp pain and a bent body”,此处bent等于twisted,意为“扭曲的,弯曲的”。

62. The purpose of Rothschild’s study is to see   .

A. how often ichthyosaurs caught the bends

B. how ichthyosaurs adapted to decompression

C. why ichthyosaurs bent their bodies

D. when ichthyosaurs broke their bones

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第三段第二句“What he particularly wanted to investigate was how...”可知答案为B。

63. Rothschild’s finding stated in Paragraph 4   .

A. confirmed his assumption

B. speeded up his research process

C. disagreed with his assumption

D. changed his research objectives

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第四段第二句“Instead,he was astonished to discover the opposite.”可知研究结果与他原本的假设相反,因此答案为C。

64. Rothschild might have concluded that ichthyosaurs   .

A. failed to evolve an anti-decompression means

B. gradually developed measures against the bends

C. died out because of large sharks and crocodiles

D. evolved an anti-decompression means but soon lost it

【解析】选A。推理判断题。根据文章倒数第二段第一句可以推断出答案。Rothschild可能已经得出结论:鱼龙类生物未能进化出反减压器官。

(2013·新课标全国卷Ⅰ·B)

  The baby is just one day old and has not yet left hospital.She is quiet but alert(警觉).Twenty centimeters from her face researchers have placed a white card with two black spots on it.She stares at it carefully.A researcher removes the card and replaces it by another,this time with the spots differently spaced.As the cards change from one to the other,her gaze(凝视)starts to lose its focus—until a third,with three black spots,is presented.Her gaze returns;she looks at it for twice as long as she did at the previous card.Can she tell that the number two is different from three,just 24 hours after coming into the world?

  Or do newborns simply prefer more to fewer?The same experiment,but with three spots shown before two,shows the same return of interest when the number of spots changes.Perhaps it is just the newness?When slightly older babies were shown cards with pictures of objects(a comb,a key,an orange and so on),changing the number of objects had an effect separate from changing the objects themselves.Could it be the pattern that two things make,as opposed to three?No again.Babies paid more attention to squares moving randomly on a screen when their number changed from two to three,or three to two.The effect even crosses between senses.Babies who were repeatedly shown two spots became more excited when they then heard three drumbeats than when they heard just two;likewise(同样地)when the researchers started with drumbeats and moved to spots.

【文章大意】本文通过实验表明了初生婴儿对眼前的图形和声音的变化是有反应的。

60.The experiment described in Paragraph 1 is related to the baby’s    .

A.sense of hearing

B.sense of sight

C.sense of touch

D.sense of smell

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第一段的She stares at it...her gaze starts...以及Her gaze returns;she looks at it...可知,这个实验和婴儿的视力有关。故选B。

61.Babies are sensitive to the change in    .

A.the size of cards

B.the colour of pictures

C.the shape of patterns

D.the number of objects

【解析】选D。推理判断题。根据第一段和第二段的第二句可知当两个变成三个或三个变成两个时,婴儿会产生浓厚的兴趣。故选D。

62. Why did the researchers test the babies with drumbeats?

A.To reduce the difficulty of the experiment.

B.To see how babies recognize sounds.

C.To carry their experiment further.

D.To keep the babies’interest.

【解析】选C。推理判断题。根据文章最后一句可知,敲鼓的目的还是为这个实验服务。所以选C。

63. Where does this text probably come from?

A. Science fiction.

B. Children’s literature.

C. An advertisement.

D. A science report.

【解析】选D。推理判断题。这篇文章主要讲述了一个实验,所以本文应摘自一篇科学报道。故选D。

二、广告宣传类


(2013·北京卷·A)

EP Portable Heater

  We all know that the cost of heating our homes will continue to be a significant burden on the family budget. Now millions of people are saving on their heating bills with the EP portable heater. With over one million satisfied customers around the world, the new EP heats better and faster, saves more on heating bills, and runs almost silent.

The EP has no exposed heating parts that can cause a fire. The outside of the EP only gets warm to the touch so that it will not burn children or pets.

The EP will not reduce oxygen in the room. With other heaters, you’ll notice that you get sleepy when the heat comes on because they are burning up oxygen.

The advanced EP also heats the room evenly, wall to wall and floor to ceiling. It comfortably covers an area up to 350 square feet. Other heaters heat rooms unevenly with most of the heat concentrated to the center of the room. And they only heat an area a few feet around the heater. With the EP, the temperature will not vary in any part of the room.

The EP comes with a 3-year warranty(保修)and a 60-day, no questions asked,satisfaction guarantee. If you are not totally satisfied, return it at our expense and your money will be given back to you.

Now we have a special offer for 10 days, during which you can enjoy a half price discount and a free delivery. If you order after that, we reserve the right to either accept or reject order requests at the discounted price.

Take action right now!

【文章大意】文章是对EP便携式加热器的广告宣传。讲述了它的优点、售后服务及优惠活动。

56. What is mainly discussed in Paragraph 2?

A. The heat of the EP.

B. The safety of the EP.

C. The appearance of the EP.

D. The material of the EP.

【解析】选B。段落大意题。第二段说EP便携式加热器不会引起火灾,不会伤着小孩和宠物,故主要讲EP的安全性。

57.From the passage,we can learn that the EP   .

A. doesn’t burn up oxygen

B. runs without any noise

C. makes people get sleepy

D. is unsuitable for children and pets

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第三段我们得知EP不会燃烧氧气,故选A。根据第一段最后“...runs almost silent.”可知是几乎没有噪音而非选项B的没有任何噪音;根据第三段可知选项C错误;根据第二段可知选项D错误。

58.The underlined word“evenly”in Paragraph 4 probably means   .

A.continuously     B.separately

C.quickly D.equally

【解析】选D。词义猜测题。根据本段后面可知这种热覆盖了350平方英尺,而其他的加热器的热大多数集中在房间的中央,由此判断evenly表示“均匀地”,故选D。

59.The main purpose of the passage is to   .

A.persuade people to buy the product

B.advise people to save on heating bills

C.report the new development of portable heaters

D.compare the functions of different heater brands

【解析】选A。主旨大意题。这是EP便携式加热器的宣传广告,由最后一段的“Take action right now!”可以判断这篇文章主要目的是劝说人们购买这种产品。

(2013·新课标全国卷Ⅱ·D) (2013·大纲版全国卷·D)



Low-Cost Gifts for Mother’s Day

Gift No.1

Offer to be your mother’s health friend.Promise to be there for any and all doctor’s visits whether a disease or a regular medical check-up.Most mothers always say“no need,”but another set of eyes and ears is always a good idea at a doctor’s visit.The best part? This one is free.



Gift No.2

Help your mother organize all of her medical records, which include the test results and medical information.Put them all in one place.Be sure to make a list of all of her medicines and what times she takes them. “Having all this information in one place could end up saving your mother’s life,”Dr.Marie Savard said.



Gift No.3

Enough sleep is connected to general health conditions. “Buy your mother cotton sheets and comfortable pillows to encourage better sleep,”Savard said.“We know that good sleep is very important to our health.”



Gift No.4

Some gift companies such as Presents for Purpose allow you to pay it forward this Mother’s Day by picking gifts in which 10 percent of the price you pay goes to a charity(慈善机构). Gift givers can choose from a wide variety of useful but inexpensive things—many of which are“green”—and then choose a meaningful charity from a list.When your mother gets the gift,she will be told that she has helped the chosen charity.

【文章大意】这是一则广告,告诉消费者母亲节要到了,推荐给大家几件可以送给母亲的礼物,即陪母亲看病、做体检;帮母亲整理就诊记录;买舒适的床上用品;从Presents for Purpose买礼物。

68. What are you advised to do for your mother at doctor’s visits?

A. Take notes.

B. Be with her.

C. Buy medicine.

D. Give her gifts.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据Gift No.1的内容可知,母亲去看医生时要陪着。由此可知选B。

69. What can be a gift of organization for your mother?

A. Keeping her medical information together.

B. Buying all gifts for her from one company.

C. Making a list of her medical check-ups.

D. Storing her medicines in a safe place.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据Gift No.2的内容可知,要把母亲的医疗检查、结果和信息放在一个地方。故选A。

70. Where can you find a gift idea to improve your mother’s sleep?

A. In Gift No.1. B. In Gift No.2.

C. In Gift No.3. D. In Gift No.4.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。Gift No.3的内容提到了改善母亲睡眠的事情。故选C。

71. Buying gifts from Presents for Purpose allows mothers to    .

A. enjoy good sleep B. be well-organized

C. get extra support D. give others help

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据Gift No.4的内容可知,从Presents for Purpose买东西,要把你付的价钱中的十分之一捐给慈善机构,从而间接帮助母亲做了善事,即帮助了别人。故选D。

(2013·福建卷·C)



This is What a REAL Silver Dollar Looks Like

  If you trust in the yen, the euro, and the dollar...stop reading.



Because this is a story about the silver coin EVERYBODY wants.

You read the headlines.You know that troubled economic times have put global currency on a rollercoaster(过山车)ride.But millions have found a smarter way to build long-term value with high-grade collectable silver.And right now,those people are lining up to secure some of the last 2012 U.S.Mint Silver Eagles,America’s Newest Silver Eagle Dollars. Today, you can graduate to the front of that line.Buy now and you can own these brilliant uncirculated Silver Dollars for only$38.95!



You Can’t Afford to Lose

Why are we releasing(发行)this silver dollar for such a remarkable price?Because we want to introduce you to what hundreds of thousands of smart collectors and satisfied customers have known since 1984—New York Mint is the place to find the world’s finest high-grade coins.That’s why we’re offering you this Brilliant Uncirculated 2012 U.S.Silver Eagle for as little as $37.45 (plus s/h).



Timing is Everything

Our advice? Keep this to yourself.Because the more people who know about this offer,the worse it is for you.Demand for Silver Eagles in 2011 broke records.Experts predict that 2012 Silver Eagles may break them all over again.Due to rapid changes in the price of silver,prices may be higher or lower and are subject to(受……影响)change without notice.Supplies are limited.Call immediately to add these Silver Eagles to your holdings before it’s too late.



Offer Limited to40per household2012American Silver Eagle Coin

Your cost
1-4 Coins  $38.95 each+ s/h
5-9 Coins $38.45 each +s/h
10-19 Coins $37.95 each +s/h
20-40 Coins $37.45 each +s/h

Note: $10s/h (shipping and handling)for each purchase

For fastest service, call toll-free 24 hours a day



1-888-201-7143

Offer Code(代码)ASE177-04

Please mention this code when you call.



New York Mint

14101 Southcross Drive W., Dept. ASE177-04

Burnsville, Minnesota 55337

www.NewYorkMint.com

【文章大意】这是关于一种2012年美国银鹰美元的广告,介绍了这种美元的优点、价格及抢购方式。

64.What is stressed in the ad?

A.The coin is of high quality and worth collecting.

B.The coin can be circulated as a currency.

C.Limited supplies guarantee a stable price of the coin.

D.Demand for the coin is bound to break records.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第一则广告的“high-grade collectable silver”可知答案选A。根据“brilliant uncirculated Silver Dollars”排除B项;C项表述错误;根据“Experts predict that 2012 Silver Eagles may break them all over again.”排除D项。

65.If you buy six 2012 U.S.Mint Silver Eagles by post,you should pay at least    .

A.$230.7 B.$233.7

C.$240.7 D.$243.7

【解析】选C。数字计算题。根据“5-9 Coins $38.45 each +s/h”及“$10s/h(shipping and handling)for each purchase”可知,38.45×6+10=240.7,故答案选C。

66.The ad strongly encourages people to purchase the silver coins by    .

A.shopping online

B.making a phone call

C.lining up in front of the stores

D.writing to the company

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据“Call immediately to add these Silver Eagles to your holdings before it’s too late.”以及“For fastest service,call toll-free 24 hours a day”可知,答案选B。
(2013·湖南卷·A)

Directions: Read the following three passages .Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage.

Planning a visit to the UK? Here we help with ways to cut your costs.



AVOID BIG EVENTS Big sporting events,concerts and exhibitions can increase the cost of accommodation and make it harder to find a room.A standard double room at the Thistle Brighton on the final Friday of the Brighton Comedy Festival(19 Oct.)cost£169.15 atBooking.com.A week later,the same room cost£118.15.

If you can be flexible and want to know dates to avoid—or you’re looking for a big event to pass your time—check out sites such asWhatsonwhen.com,which allow you to search for events in the UK by city,date and category.



STAY AWAY FROM THE STATION If traveling to your destination by train, you may want to find a good base close to the station,but you could end up paying more for the sake of convenience at the start of your holiday.

Don’t be too choosy about the part of town you stay in.Booking two months in advance,the cheapest room at Travelodge’s Central Euston hotel in London for Saturday 22 September was£95.95.A room just a tube journey away at its Covent Garden hotel was£75.75.And at Farringdon,a double room cost just£62.95.



LOOK AFTER YOURSELF Really central hotels in cities such as London,Edinburgh and Cardiff can cost a fortune,especially at weekends and during big events.As an alternative consider checking into a self-catering flat with its own kitchen.Often these flats are hidden away on the top floors of city centre buildings.A great example is the historic O’Neill Flat on Edinburgh’s Royal Mile,available for£420 for five days in late September,with room for four adults.

GET ON A BIKE London’s‘Boris bikes’have attracted the most attention,but other cities also have similar programmes that let you rent a bicycle and explore at your own pace,saving you on public transport or car parking costs.

Among the smaller cities with their own programmes are Newcastle(casual members pay around£1.50 for two hours)and Cardiff(free for up to 30 minutes,or£5 per day). (358 words)

【文章大意】本文主要向读者介绍了几个在英国旅行时可以节省开支的建议。

56.The Brighton Comedy Festival is mentioned mainly to show big events may    .

A.help travelers pass time

B.attract lots of travelers to the UK

C.allow travelers to make flexible plans

D.cause travelers to pay more for accommodation

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第一则信息中Big sporting events,concerts and exhibitions can increase the cost of accommodation and make it harder to find a room.一句可知大型活动会增加住宿的成本并导致难以找到房间。

57.“Farringdon”in Paragraph 5 is most probably    .

A.a hotel away from the train station

B.the tube line to Covent Garden

C.an ideal holiday destination

D.the name of a travel agency

【解析】选A。细节理解题。STAY AWAY FROM THE STATION一则信息主要告诉读者住宿要远离车站,那样的话会更省钱,故可推知Farringdon是一家远离车站的宾馆。

58.The passage shows that the O’Neill Flat    .

A.lies on the ground floor

B.is located in central London

C.provides cooking facilities for tourists

D.costs over£100 on average per day in late September

【解析】选C。细节理解题。第三则信息中As an alternative consider checking into a self-catering flat with its own kitchen.一句表明这种宾馆提供配有厨房的公寓。

59.Cardiff’s program allows a free bike for a maximum period of    .

A.half an hour B.one hour

C.one hour and a half D.two hours

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据最后一段free for up to 30 minutes,or£5 per day一句可知免费自行车服务最长时间为半个小时。

60.The main purpose of the passage is    .

A.to tell visitors how to book in advance

B.to supply visitors with hotel information

C.to show visitors the importance of self-help

D.to offer visitors some money-saving tips

【解析】选D。主旨大意题。本文主要向读者介绍了几个在英国旅行时可以节省开支的建议。

(2013·江苏卷·A)





Guest Services

Front Gate Guest Services can help you with anything from finding out what time your favourite show starts to purchasing tickets.The Guest Services location inside Front Gate also serves as a message centre,lost children’s area and lost and found.Canada’s Wonderland does not offer personalized public paging(传呼).



Food & Drink Options

Shops are located throughout Canada’s Wonderland.Picnic baskets and coolers are welcome at the shelter located outside Wonderland on the north side of our Front Gate.Outside food and drinks are not allowed in the Park.Bottled water may be brought into the Park.



ATMs

ATMs are located just inside the Park beside Stroller,Locker and Wheelchair Rentals at the Front Gate,as well as KidZville(beside Guest Services),Splash Works(two locations),and outside Thunder Run.



Pet Care

A pet care facility is located outside our Front Gate on the south side for a daily fee.Water and air-conditioned shelters are provided.Guests are asked to provide food and exercise.



First Aid

If you need medical assistance, tell any park employee who will call First Aid and have them come to your location.



Stroller,Locker and Wheelchair Rentals

Stroller, locker and wheelchair rentals are available inside the Park at the Front Gate, beside Thrills Are Wonderland.

Smoking Policy

Smoking is not permitted while riding or standing in line for rides or in any of the children’s areas or the Water Park.Smoking is permitted in designated(指定的)areas only.



Failure to observe all Park rules could result in being driven out of the Park without refund.

【文章大意】广告宣传类文章。文章介绍了公园内提供的服务以及相关规定。

56.The leaflet is to inform visitors of the Park’s   .

A.advanced management

B.thrill performances

C.entertainment facilities

D.thoughtful services

【解析】选D。主旨大意题。根据广告各栏目的要点可知此处为告知游客该公园的贴心服务。

57.A visitor to the Park can   .

A.rent a stroller outside Front Gate

B.ask for first aid by Thunder Run

C.smoke in the Water Park

D.leave his pet at KidZville

【解析】选B。细节理解题。A项错误在于,是“inside”而不是“outside”。在Smoking Policy栏目中明确提到在水上公园吸烟是禁止的,因此C项错误。在Pet Care栏目当中提到宠物便利中心设置于前门外,可以免费存放宠物一天,因此判断D项错误。

(2013·新课标全国卷Ⅰ·D)



The National Gallery

Description:

  The National Gallery is the British national art museum built on the north side of Trafalgar Square in London. It houses a diverse collection of more than 2,300 examples of European art ranging from 13th-century religious paintings to more modern ones by Renoir and Van Gogh. The older collections of the gallery are reached through the main entrance while the more modern works in the East Wing are most easily reached from Trafalgar Square by a ground floor entrance.



Layout:

  The modern Sainsbury Wing on the western side of the building houses 13th- to 15th-century paintings, and artists include Duccio, Uccello, Van Eyck, Lippi, Mantegna, Botticelli and Memling.

  The main West Wing houses 16th-century paintings, and artists include Leonardo da Vinci, Cranach, Michelangelo, Raphael, Bruegel, Bronzino, Titian and Veronese.

  The North Wing houses 17th-century paintings, and artists include Caravaggio, Rubens, Poussin, Van Dyck, Velazquez, Claude and Vermeer.

  The East Wing houses 18th- to early 20th-century paintings, and artists include Canaletto, Goya, Turner, Constable, Renoir and Van Gogh.

Opening Hours:

  The Gallery is open every day from 10 am to 6 pm(Fridays 10 am to 9 pm)and is free,but charges apply to some special exhibitions.



Getting There:

  Nearest underground stations: Charing Cross (2-minute walk), Leicester Square (3-minute walk), Embankment(7-minute walk),and Piccadilly Circus(8-minute walk).

【文章大意】本文主要介绍了英国的The National Gallery。

68. In which century’s collection can you see religious paintings?

A. The 13th. B. The 17th.

C. The 18th. D. The 20th.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据Description中的13th-century religious paintings可知选A。

69. Where are Leonardo da Vinci’s works shown?

A. In the East Wing.

B. In the main West Wing.

C. In the Sainsbury Wing.

D. In the North Wing.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据Layout中的The main West Wing houses 16th-century paintings,and artists include Leonardo da Vinci可知。

70. Which underground station is closest to the National Gallery?

A. Piccadilly Circus.

B. Leicester Square.

C. Embankment.

D. Charing Cross.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据Getting There中的对Nearest underground stations的介绍可知Charing Cross是最近的。故选D。

(2013·新课标全国卷Ⅱ·B) (2013·大纲版全国卷·B)

  In 1947 a group of famous people from the art world headed by an Austrian conductor decided to hold an international festival of music, dance and theatre in Edinburgh.The idea was to reunite Europe after the Second World War.

  It quickly attracted famous names such as Alec Guinness,Richard Burton,Dame Margot Fonteyn and Marlene Dietrich as well as the big symphony orchestras(交响乐团).It became a fixed event every August and now attracts 400,000 people yearly.

  At the same time,the“Fringe”appeared as a challenge to the official festival.Eight theatre groups turned up uninvited in 1947,in the belief that everyone should have the right to perform,and they did so in a public house disused for years.

  Soon, groups of students firstly from Edinburgh University,and later from the universities of Oxford and Cambridge,Durham and Birmingham were making the journey to the Scottish capital each summer to perform theatre by little-known writers of plays in small church halls to the people of Edinburgh.

  Today the“Fringe”,once less recognized,has far outgrown the festival with around 1,500 performances of theatre,music and dance on every one of the 21 days it lasts.And yet as early as 1959,with only 19 theatre groups performing,some said it was getting too big.

  A paid administrator was first employed only in 1971, and today there are eight administrators working all year round and the number rises to 150 during August itself.In 2004 there were 200 places housing 1,695 shows by over 600 different groups from 50 different countries. More than 1.25 million tickets were sold.

【文章大意】本文主要介绍了爱丁堡边缘(Fringe)艺术节的成立以及发展壮大的情况。

60. What was the purpose of Edinburgh Festival at the beginning?

A. To bring Europe together again.

B. To honor heroes of World WarⅡ.

C. To introduce young theatre groups.

D. To attract great artists from Europe.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第一段的The idea was to reunite Europe after the Second World War.可知,成立爱丁堡边缘艺术节的目的是使二战后的欧洲重新团结。故选A。

61. Why did some uninvited theatre groups come to Edinburgh in 1947?

A. They owned a public house there.

B. They came to take up a challenge.

C. They thought they were also famous.

D. They wanted to take part in the festival.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第三段的in the belief that everyone should have the right to perform可知,他们认为他们有权利参加这个节日。故选D。

62. Who joined the“Fringe”after it appeared?

A. Popular writers.

B. University students.

C. Artists from around the world.

D. Performers of music and dance.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第四段的内容可知,在爱丁堡边缘艺术节成立后不久,很多大学生参加了这个节日。故选B。

63.We may learn from the text that Edinburgh Festival    .

A. has become a non-official event

B. has gone beyond an art festival

C. gives shows all year round

D. keeps growing rapidly

【解析】选D。推理判断题。根据文章内容尤其最后一段可知爱丁堡边缘艺术节是一个官方组织的活动,只在每年八月举行,现在发展很迅速。由此可知选D。

(2013·四川卷·A)



Fun Day

To celebrate the Year of the Snake



Organised by Lam Tin Youth Centre and Kwun Tong High School

Date: 2 February 2013

Time: 10 am—5 pm

Place: Kwun Tong Playground

Fee: $20(buy three get one free)

Programmes: drama, lion dance, magic show and ballet performance

Hightlights: 1)enter the lucky draw to win a digital camera

2)learn to make festival food



Join us on the Fun Day!
All are welcome!
  

Note:


*Tickets are available at the General Office of Lam Tin Youth Centre.

*For those who would like to be a volunteer please contact Miss Olivia Wong one week before the activity.

【文章大意】本文为广告类文章。告诉大家将要举行的庆祝蛇年的活动安排情况以及注意事项。

31.What you have just read is a    .

A.note   B.report  C.schedule D.poster

【解析】选D。推理判断题。根据题目,事情安排的时间、地点、费用等情况可判断这是一份海报。

32.What is going to take place on 2 February, 2013?

A.A big event to welcome a Chinese new year.

B.A social gathering to raise money for wildlife.

C.A party for close friends to meet and have fun.

D.A meeting of Kwun Tong High School students.

【解析】选A。推理判断题。根据文章的标题以及活动安排可推知在Kwun Tong High School将会举行盛大的新年庆祝活动。故选A项。

33.How much do you have to pay in total if four of you go together?

A.$20. B.$40. C.$60. D.$80.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。关于收费文中给出的信息为buy three get one free,故可知四个人只需买三个人的票就可以得到四张票,故选C项。

34.Which of the following statements is true?

A.Tickets are sold in Kwun Tong High School.

B.It’s unnecessary to take soft drinks with you.

C.Free digital cameras are provided for everybody.

D.Festival food will be served without extra charge.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据文中的信息“Free Soft Drinks”可知提供饮料,故没必要自己带饮料。因此选B项。根据Note中的内容可知在the General Office of Lam Tin Youth Centre可以买到门票,A项错误;幸运抽奖才可能得到数码相机,C项错误;没有提到提供节日食品不收费,只是说可以学做节日食品,故D项错误。

(2013·重庆卷·B)



One of the greatest gifts one generation can give to other generations is the wisdom it has gained from experience. This idea has inspired the award-winning photographer Andrew Zuckerman. He interviewed and took photos of fifty over-sixty-five-year-olds all over the world. His project explores various aspects of their lives. The photos and interviews are now available on our website.
Click on the introductions to read the complete interviews.

Let us now have a culture of peace.

Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Spain

Federico Mayor Zaragoza obtained a doctorate in pharmacy(药学)from the Complutense University of Madrid in 1958. After many years spent in politics, he became Director-General of UNESCO in 1987. In 1999, he created the Foundation for a Culture of Peace, of which he is now the president. In addition to many scientific publications, he has published four collections of poems and several books of essays.


Writing is a discovery.

Nadine Gordimer, South Africa

Due to a weak heart, Nadine Gordimer attended school and university briefly. She read widely and began writing at an early age. She published her first short story at the age of fifteen, and has completed a large number of works, which have been translated into forty languages. In 1991, Gordimer won the Nobel Prize for Literature.


Jazz is about the only form of art today.

Dave Brubeck, USA



Dave Brubeck studied music at the University of the Pacific and graduated in 1942. After World War Two he was encouraged to play jazz. In 1951, he recorded his first album(专辑). Brubeck’s 1959 album has become a jazz standard. He received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1996.

  
For more figuresCLICK HERE.

【文章大意】文章是一个网页,讲述Andrew意识到一代人给后辈最伟大的礼物之一就是在经验中获得的智慧,这一点促使他对全世界50位65岁以上的老人进行了采访和拍照。网页列举了其中三位受采访者。

60.Why did Andrew Zuckerman choose the fifty elders for his project?

A.Because their wisdom deserves to be passed on.

B.Because they are physically impressive.

C.Because their accomplishments inspired him.

D.Because they have similar experiences.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据文章第一段可知是“一代人给后辈最伟大的礼物之一就是在经验中获得的智慧”这一想法使得Andrew对这50位老人进行了采访。

61.According to the web page, Federico Mayor Zaragoza   .

A.has won many awards for his work in politics

B.has served as the president of a university

C.has devoted all his life to the field of science

D.has made achievements in different areas

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据对Federico Mayor Zaragoza的描述可知他在政治、科学、诗歌、散文等多个领域都有所建树。

62.Who most probably said“My education has been the library and books”in the interview when reflecting on his/her experience?

A.Andrew Zuckerman.

B.Federico Mayor Zaragoza.

C.Nadine Gordimer.

D.Dave Brubeck.

【解析】选C。推理判断题。根据对Nadine Gordimer的介绍可知她心脏不好,上学时间比较短,故最有可能说“我的教育是图书馆和书籍”这样的话。

63.What is the main purpose of this web page?

A.To show Zuckerman’s awards.

B.To publicize Zuckerman’s project.

C.To spread the wisdom of the three people.

D.To celebrate the achievements of the three people.

【解析】选B。主旨大意题。文章主要是对Andrew Zuckerman的采访进行宣传。


三、政治经济类


(2013·陕西卷·C)

According to sociologists(社会学家), every modern industrial society has some form of social stratification(阶层). Class, power and status are important in deciding people’s rank in society.

Class means a person’s economic position in society. A commonly used classification is lower class, middle class and upper class. While sociologists disagree on how these terms should be exactly defined, they do describe societies like the United States quite well. One study shows that 53% of Americans belong to the lower class, 46% the middle class, and 1% the upper class. Interestingly, a surgeon earning $500, 000 a year and a bus driver earning $50, 000 a year both regard themselves as the middle class!

Power refers to the amount of control a person has over other people. Obviously, people in positions of great power(such as governors)exercise(行使)big power, but people who take orders from others have less power. Power and class do not always go hand in hand, however. For example, the governor of a state has great power, but he or she may not belong to a corresponding(相应的)economic class. Generally, however, there is a relationship between power and class. To our knowledge, there aren’t too many people who aren’t millionaires in the U. S. Senate!

Status is the honor or respect attached to a person’s position in society. It can also be affected by power and class, but not necessarily so. For example, a university professor may have a high status but not belong to a high social class or have a lot of power over others.

【文章大意】本文谈到阶级、权力和地位在决定一个人的社会等级方面很重要,同时对这三个方面分别进行了进一步的描述。

54. What can we learn about“the middle class”from Paragraph 2?

A. People earning $50,000 a year belong to the middle class.

B. Nearly half Americans belong to the middle class.

C. People generally consider bus drivers as the middle class.

D. Sociologists have a clear definition of the middle class.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。第二段倒数第二句中提到“46% the middle class”,故B项对;A项说法太绝对,年收入5万美元的未必属于中产阶级;C项与原文意思不符;第二段第三句话提到社会学家们就这些阶层应该怎样被准确定义意见不一,故D项不对。

55. According to the text, we know that    .

A. power and class do not always correspond with each other

B. status refers to a person’s economic position in society

C. people with high status have a lot of control over others

D. class is less important in deciding a person’s social rank

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第三段第三句可知权力和阶级并不总是一致的,故A项对;class(阶级)指的是一个人的经济地位,而不是status,故B项不对;根据文章最后列举的大学教授的例子可以看出有很高的社会地位并不一定权力很大,故C项不对;文章提到的这三个方面并没有主次之分,故D项不对。



56. Which of the following shows the structure of the whole text?

(P:Paragraph)

【解析】选A。逻辑结构题。文章第一段提出这三个方面对于决定一个人的社会等级重要,紧接着后三段对这三个方面分别进行了论述,因此是总分结构,故选A。

(2013·四川卷·C)

LONDON—A British judge on Thursday sentenced a businessman who sold fake(假冒的)bomb detectors(探测器)to 10 years in prison, saying the man hadn’t cared about potentially deadly consequences.

It is believed that James McCormick got about $77.8 million from the sales of his detectors—which were based on a kind of golf ball finder—to countries including Iraq, Belgium and Saudi Arabia.

McCormick, 57, was convicted(判罪)of cheats last month and sentenced Thursday at the Old Bailey court in London.

“Your cheating conduct in selling a great amount of useless equipment simply for huge profit promoted a false sense of security and in all probability materially contributed to causing death and injury to innocent people, ”Judge Richard Hone told McCormick.“You have neither regret, nor shame, nor any sense of guilt.”

The detectors, sold for up to $42, 000 each, were said to be able to find such dangerous objects as bombs under water and from the air. But in fact they“lacked any grounding in science”and were of no use.

McCormick had told the court that he sold his detectors to the police in Kenya, the prison service in Hong Kong, the army in Egypt and the border control in Thailand.

“I never had any bad results from customers, ”he said.

【文章大意】本文主要讲述了商人McCormick由于出售没有科学依据的炸弹探测器而被判刑的故事。

39.Why was McCormick sentenced to prison?

A.He sold bombs.

B.He caused death of people.

C.He made detectors.

D.He cheated in business.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第一段可知McCormick由于出售假冒的炸弹探测器而被判处10年监禁,再结合第三段的McCormick, 57, was convicted of cheats last month可知选D项。

40.According to the judge, what McCormick had done   .

A.increased the cost of safeguarding

B.lowered people’s guard against danger

C.changed people’s idea of social security

D.caused innocent people to commit crimes

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第四段的第一句话“Your cheating conduct in selling a great amount of useless equipment simply for huge profit promoted a false sense of security and in all probability materially contributed to causing death and injury to innocent people”可知选B项。

41.Which of the following is true of the detectors?

A.They have not been sold to Africa.

B.They have caused many serious problems.

C.They can find dangerous objects in water.

D.They don’t function on the basis of science.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据倒数第二段可知他把炸弹探测器卖给了the army in Egypt可知A项错误;根据文章最后一句话“I never had any bad results from customers, ”he said.可知目前还没有造成很严重的问题, B项错误;根据法官起诉他的原因可知McCormick的炸弹探测器没有科学依据,故C项错误;根据第五段的最后一句话they“lacked any grounding in science”and were of no use可知D项正确。

42.It can be inferred from the passage that McCormick   .

A.sold the equipment at a low price

B.was well-known in most countries

C.did not think he had committed the crime

D.had not got such huge profit as mentioned in the text

【解析】选C。推理判断题。根据第四段法官的陈述,特别是最后一句You have neither regret, nor shame, nor any sense of guilt.可推知McCormick并不认为自己犯了罪。


四、人物传记类


(2013·山东卷·B)

George Gershwin, born in 1898, was one of America’s greatest composers. He published his first song when he was eighteen years old. During the next twenty years he wrote more than five hundred songs.

Many of Gershwin’s songs were first written for musical plays performed in theatres in New York City. These plays were a popular form of entertainment in the 1920s and 1930s. Many of his songs have remained popular as ever. Over the years they have been sung and played in every possible way—from jazz to country.

In the 1920s there was a debate in the United States about jazz music. Could jazz, some people asked, be considered serious music? In 1924 jazz musician and orchestra leader Paul Whiteman decided to organize a special concert to show that jazz was serious music. Gershwin agreed to compose something for the concert before he realized he had just a few weeks to do it. And in that short time, he composed a piece for piano and orchestra which he calledRhapsody in Blue. Gershwin himself played the piano at the concert. The audience were thrilled when they heard his music. It made him world-famous and showed that jazz music could be both serious and popular.

In 1928, Gershwin went to Paris. He applied to study composition(作曲)with the well-known musician Nadia Boulanger, but she rejected him. She was afraid that classical study would ruin his jazz-influenced style. While there, Gershwin wrote An American in Paris. When it was first performed, critics(评论家)were divided over the music. Some called it happy and full of life, to others it was silly and boring. But it quickly became popular in Europe and the United States. It still remains one of his most famous works.

George Gershwin died in 1937, just days after doctors learned he had brain cancer. He was only thirty-nine years old. Newspapers all over the world reported his death on their front pages. People mourned the loss of the man and all the music he might have still written.

【文章大意】本文是人物传记类文章, 主要介绍了George Gershwin这位既有天赋又多产的作曲家在音乐方面的贡献及突出成绩。

61. Many of Gershwin’s musical works were    .

A.written about New Yorkers

B.composed for Paul Whiteman

C.played mainly in the countryside

D.performed in various ways

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第二段最后一句可知他的音乐作品以多种形式被演奏。in every possible way与various ways属于同义替换。所以选D。

62.What do we know about the concert organized by Whiteman?

A.It attracted more people to theatres.

B.It proved jazz could be serious music.

C.It made Gershwin leader of the orchestra.

D.It caused a debate among jazz musicians.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第三段最后一句It made him world-famous and showed that jazz music could be both serious and popular.可知B正确。

63.What did Gershwin do during his stay in Paris?

A.He created one of his best works.

B.He studied with Nadia Boulanger.

C.He argued with French critics.

D.He changed his music style.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据倒数第二段第四句While there, ...及最后一句It still remains one of his most famous works.可知答案为A。

64.What do we learn from the last paragraph?

A.Many of Gershwin’s works were lost.

B.The death of Gershwin was widely reported.

C.A concert was held in memory of Gershwin.

D.Brain cancer research started after Gershwin’s death.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据最后一段第三句可知B项正确。其他选项均未涉及。

65.Which of the following best describes Gershwin?

A.Talented and productive.

B.Serious and boring.

C.Popular and unhappy.

D.Friendly and honest.

【解析】选A。推理判断题。通读全文可知Gershwin是一位有天赋又多产的作曲家。

五、文化教育类


(2013·陕西卷·D)

  About 30 years ago, I left Cuba for the United States with my son. After getting settled finally in Brunswick, New Jersey, I enrolled(注册)my son in kindergarten. Several weeks later, my son’s teacher asked me to meet him at his office.

In the teacher’s office, an exchange of greetings was followed by his questions:“Is your son mentally retarded(弱智的)? Does he suffer from any kind of mental disability?”

Was he talking about my wonderful Scola? No, no, it can’t be. What a helpless, lonely moment! I told him that Scola was a quiet, sweet little boy, instead. I asked him why he was asking me all these questions.

My son could not follow the teacher’s directions, he told me, and thus, Scola was disrupting the class. Didn’t he know my son did not speak English yet?

He was angry:“Why hasn’t your son been taught to speak English? Don’t you speak English at home?”

No, I didn’t speak English at home, I replied. I was sure my son would learn English in a couple of months, and I didn’t want him to forget his native language. Well, wrong answer! What kind of person would not speak in English to her son at home and at all times? “Are you one of those people who come to this country to save dollars and send them back to their country, never wanting to be a part of this society?”

Needless to say, I tried to tell him I was not one of“those people”. Then he told me the meeting was over, and I left.

As I had expected, my son learned to speak English fluently before the school year was over. He went on to graduate from college and got a job, earning close to six figures. He travels widely and leads a well-adjusted, contented life. And he has benefited from being bilingual(双语的).

Speaking more than one language allows people to communicate with others;it teaches people about other cultures and other places-something very basic and obviously lacking in the“educator”I met in New Jersey.

【文章大意】作者和儿子搬到美国新泽西州, 儿子上幼儿园时因不会说英语,他的老师找作者谈话,认为作者应该和孩子在家就用英语交流,而作者不这么认为,她觉得学多种语言是为了与人交流,为了多了解别国的文化。

57.The teacher asked the author to his office    .

A.to discuss Scola’s in-class performance

B.to get Scola enrolled in kindergarten

C.to find a language partner for Scola

D.to work out a study plan for Scola

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据二、三、四、五、六段可知,他们谈论的都是关于作者的儿子在课堂上的表现,故选A。

58.What does the underlined word“disrupting”in Paragraph 4 probably mean?

A.Breaking. B.Following. C.Attending. D.Disturbing.

【解析】选D。词义猜测题。根据这一句话的前半部分可知,作者的儿子不听老师的指令,因此可推断这样做会扰乱课堂秩序。break打破;follow遵循,遵守;attend参加;disturb打搅,扰乱。故选D。

59.The author’s attitude towards being bilingual may best be described as    .

A.critical B.casual C.positive D.passive

【解析】选C。观点态度题。根据倒数第二段最后一句可知,作者的儿子从中受益匪浅,因此作者是支持的。critical挑剔的,批评的;casual随意的;positive积极的,肯定的;passive消极的,否定的。故选C。

60.This text is likely to be selected from a book of    .

A.medicine B.education C.geography D.history

【解析】选B。推理判断题。本文谈论的是与教育有关的语言学习的问题,所以选B。



(2013·北京卷·B)

Tail Spin

  Two dolphins race around in a big pool in the Ocean Park. The smaller dolphin, Grace, shows off a few of her tricks, turning around and waving hello to the crowd. The most amazing thing about her, however, is that she’s even swimming at all. She doesn’t have a tail.

Grace lost her tail as a baby when she got caught up in a fish trap.When the dolphin arrived at the Ocean Park in December 2005, she was fighting for her life.“Is she going to make it?”Her trainer, Abbey Stone, feared the worst. Grace did make it—but her tail didn’t. She ended up losing her flukes and the lower part of her peduncle.

Over the past six years, she has learned to swim without her tail. Dolphins swim by moving their flukes and peduncle up and down. Grace taught herself to move another way—like a fish! She pushes herself forward through the water by moving her peduncle from side to side.

The movements put harmful pressure on Grace’s backbone. So a company offered to create a man-made tail for her. The tail had to be strong enough to stay on Grace as she swam but soft enough that it wouldn’t hurt her.

The first time Grace wore the artificial tail, she soon shook it off and let it sink to the bottom of the pool. Now, she is still learning to use the tail. Some days she wears it for an hour at a time, others not at all. “The new tail isn’t necessary for her to feel comfortable,”says Stone,“but it helps to keep that range of motion(动作)and build muscles(肌肉).”

Now, the dolphin is about to get an even happier ending. This month, Grace will star inDolphin Tale, a film that focuses on her rescue and recovery. Her progress has inspired more than just a new movie. Many people travel from near and far to meet her. Seeing Grace swim with her man-made tail gives people so much courage.

【文章大意】文章讲述了海豚Grace小时候掉了尾巴,在过去的六年中学着没有尾巴来游泳,后来一家公司给她提供了人造尾巴,她又学着带着人造尾巴游泳。这个月她将出演《海豚的传说》,她带着人造尾巴游泳给了人们很多勇气。

60.When Grace first arrived at the Ocean Park,her trainer worried about her   .

A.physical build

B.potential ability

C.chance of survival

D.adaptation to the surroundings

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第二段的第二句“...she was fighting for her life.”以及第三句的“Is she going to make it?”可以得出海豚训练师担心她是否能存活下来,故选C。

61.A man-made tail is created for Grace to   .

A.let her recover faster

B.make her comfortable

C.adjust her way of swimming

D.help her perform better tricks

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据倒数第二段的“The new tail isn’t necessary for her to feel comfortable,”says Stone,“but it helps to keep that range of motion and build muscles.”可知选C。

62.The story of Grace inspires people to   .

A.stick to their dreams

B.treat animals friendly

C.treasure what they have

D.face difficulties bravely

【解析】选D。推理判断题。记叙文主旨绝大多数出现在文章最后,本文也不例外。最后一句中的courage是本题的题眼。作者在最后告诉读者本文的写作目的,即鼓励人们在逆境中要勇敢要有勇气,故答案为D。

(2013·安徽卷·C)

When 19-year-old Sophia Giorgi said she was thinking of volunteering to help the Make-A-Wish Foundation(基金会),nobody understood what she was talking about.But Sophia knew just how important Make-A-Wish could be because this special organization had helped to make a dream come true for one of her best friends.We were interested in finding out more,so we went along to meet Sophia and listen to what she had to say.

Sophia told us that Make-A-Wish is a worldwide organization that started in the United States in 1980.“It’s a charity(慈善机构)that helps children who have got very serious illnesses. Make-A-Wish help children feel happy even though they are sick,by making their wishes and dreams come true,”Sophia explained.

We asked Sophia how Make-A-Wish had first started.She said it had all begun with a very sick young boy called Chris,who had been dreaming for a long time of becoming a policeman.Sophia said lots of people had wanted to find a way to make Chris’s dream come true—so,with everybody’s help,Chris,only seven years old at the time,had been a“policeman”for a day.“When people saw how delighted Chris was when his dream came true,they decided to try and help other sick children too,and that was the beginning of Make-A-Wish,”explained Sophia.

Sophia also told us the Foundation tries to give children and their families a special, happy time. A Make-A-Wish volunteer visits the families and asks the children what they would wish for if they could have anything in the world.Sophia said the volunteers were important because they were the ones who helped to make the wishes come true.They do this either by providing things that are necessary, or by raising money or helping out in whatever way they can.

【文章大意】本文主要给我们介绍一个帮助生病的孩子们实现愿望的组织——Make-A-Wish

64.Sophia found out about Make-A-Wish because her best friend had    .

A.benefited from it

B.volunteered to help it

C.dreamed about it

D.told the author about it

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第一段的第二句But Sophia knew just how important Make-A-Wish could be because this special organization had helped to make a dream come true for one of her best friends.可知本题答案为A。

65.According to Sophia,Make-A-Wish    .

A.is an international charity

B.was understood by nobody at first

C.raises money for very poor families

D.started by drawing the interest of the public

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第二段的第一、二句Sophia told us that Make-A-Wish is a worldwide organization that started in the United States in 1980.“It’s a charity that helps children who have got very serious illnesses.可知Make-A-Wish是一个国际性的慈善机构,因此选A。

66.What is said about Chris in Paragraph 3?

A.He has been a policeman since he was seven.

B.He gave people the idea of starting Make-A-Wish.

C.He wanted people to help make his dream come true.

D.He was the first child Make-A-Wish helped after it had been set up.

【解析】选B。主旨大意题。本段主要是讲一个生病的小男孩Chris在众人的帮助下实现了自己当警察的梦想,这件事激发人们开设了这个组织Make-A-Wish,因此本题答案选B。

67.Which of the following is true about Make-A-Wish volunteers?

A.They are important for making wishes come true.

B.They try to help children get over their illnesses.

C.They visit sick children to make them feel special.

D.They provide what is necessary to make Make-A-Wish popular.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据最后一段的第三句Sophia said the volunteers were important because they were the ones who helped to make the wishes come true.可知Make-A-Wish的志愿者们是重要的,因为他们会帮助愿望成真。这个组织是为了帮助生病的孩子实现愿望,不是帮孩子克服疾病的,故B项有误;志愿者们拜访生病的孩子是为了了解他们的愿望,不是让他们感到特别,故C项不正确;志愿者们提供给孩子必须的东西是为了帮他们实现愿望不是让这个组织受欢迎,故D项也是不正确的。

(2013·福建卷·E)

  A MENTORING(导师制)program is giving life changing opportunities to Banbury youth.

Young Inspirations was founded two years ago to provide mentoring sessions for students and unemployed young adults aged 11 to 21.

Alex Goldberg, the program’s founder, said: “We set up Young Inspirations because we wanted to give young people experiences which will potentially be life changing and broaden their outlook.”

“We try to create work experience opportunities that will really make a difference to our youth. For example, we’ve secured internships(实习)with world-famous firms such as Honda.”

“At a time of funding cutbacks where schools are finding it more and more difficult to offer this kind of mentoring, it is extremely important that these opportunities are available both to help youth with their school work and grades and to give them opportunities which may help shape their futures.” Kieran Hepburn, 14, is one of a group of Banbury youth who has benefited from the program so far. In October the Banbury School pupil was accompanied by Young Inspirations staff to Paris where he was an observer at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) International Youth Forum (论坛).

The event was held for young people from around the world, to seek their views on how the future of youth and education should look. Kieran joined several hundred observers mostly in their 20s and was the only UK school pupil to attend the event. Kieran thinks the trip was a life changing experience. “Before we left I didn’t quite know what to make of it but when we got there we didn’t stop, it was amazing,” he said,“We went to three or four hours of debates each day and then did something cultural each afternoon.”

The main theme of the forum was how youth can drive change in political and public life. It dealt with issues(问题)such as drug abuse, violence and unemployment.

Kieran said: “It has really helped me to improve my confidence and social skills as well as my school grades and I was voted most improved pupil at school in August.”

The Young Inspirations mentoring sessions take place each Friday in Banbury. For details visit www.younginspirations.com.

【文章大意】年轻人激励方案的实施及评论。

71.The Young Inspirations mentoring program aims to    .

A.train staff for world-famous firms

B.offer job opportunities to young adults

C.provide youth with unique experiences

D.equip the unemployed with different skills

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第二段“We set up Young Inspirations because we wanted to give young people experiences which will potentially be life changing and broaden their outlook.”可知,Young Inspirations的主要目的是给年轻人独特的经历,故答案选C。

72.According to Alex Goldberg,it is difficult for schools to offer the mentoring due to    .

A.the lack of support from firms

B.the cultural differences

C.the effect of unemployment

D.the shortage of money

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第四段“At a time of funding cutbacks where schools are finding it more and more difficult to offer this kind of mentoring”可知,经费削减是主要原因,也即缺乏资金,故答案选D。

73.According to the passage,the forum focused on how youth can    .

A.build up their confidence at school

B.find work experience opportunities

C.improve their social skills for the future

D.play an active role in the change of society

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第六段“The main theme of the forum was how youth can drive change in political and public life.”可知答案选D。

74.We can learn from the passage that    .

A.the visit to the United Kingdom was amazing

B.Kieran has made great progress in many aspects

C.the youth have found a way to solve their problems

D.the mentoring sessions are held every day except Friday

【解析】选B。推理判断题。根据Kieran的话“It has really helped me to improve my confidence and social skills as well as my school grades and I was voted most improved pupil at school in August.”可以推知,Kieran在很多方面取得了进步,故答案选B。

75.What would be the best title for the passage?

A.Alex Goldberg,Founder of Young Inspirations

B.Young People Find a World of Opportunity

C.Kieran,Banbury School Pupil to Paris

D.Debates Help Youth with Their Grades

【解析】选B。主旨大意题。文章主要讲述了Young Inspirations为年轻人适应社会的改变而提供锻炼机会,使他们更好地服务社会,故答案选B。其余选项都是细节。

(2013·湖北卷·C)

We’ve reached a strange—some would say unusual—point. While fighting world hunger continues to be the matter of vital importance according to a recent report from the World Health Organization(WHO), more people now die from being overweight, or say, from being extremely fat, than from being underweight. It’s the good life that’s more likely to kill us these days.

Worse, nearly 18 million children under the age of five around the world are estimated to be overweight. What’s going on?

We really don’t have many excuses for our weight problems. The dangers of the problem have been drilled into us by public-health campaigns since 2001 and the message is getting through—up to a point.

In the 1970s, Finland, for example, had the highest rate of heart disease in the world and being overweight was its main cause. Not any more. A public-health campaign has greatly reduced the number of heart disease deaths by 80 per cent over the past three decades.

Maybe that explains why the percentage of people in Finland taking diet pills doubled between 2001 and 2005, and doctors even offer surgery of removing fat inside and change the shape of the body. That has become a sort of fashion. No wonder it ranks as the world’s most body-conscious country.

We know what we should be doing to lose weight—but actually doing it is another matter. By far the most popular excuse is not taking enough exercise. More than half of us admit we lack willpower.

Others blame good food. They say: it’s just too inviting and it makes them overeat. Still others lay the blame on the Americans, complaining that pounds have piled on thanks to eating too much American-style fast food.

Some also blame their parents—their genes.But unfortunately, the parents are wronged because they’re normal in shape, or rather slim.

It’s a similar story around the world, although people are relatively unlikely to have tried to lose weight. Parents are eager to see their kids shape up. Do as I say—not as I do.

【文章大意】尽管世界性的饥饿问题依然存在着,可是越来越多的人死于肥胖问题。而且这样的问题引起了很多关注,很多人把肥胖归因于食品、不经常运动,甚至是父母的基因,但是作者指出不应该抱怨,而应该采取行动。

59.What is the“strange”point mentioned in the first sentence?

A.The good life is a greater risk than the bad life.

B.Starvation is taking more people’s lives in the world.

C.WHO report shows people’s unawareness of food safety.

D.Overweight issue remains unresolved despite WHO’s efforts.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第一段的第二句的陈述可知世界性的饥饿问题依然存在着,可是死于肥胖的比饿死的人多,这一问题反差之大令人感到惊讶。故选A项。

60. Why does the author think that people have no excuse for being overweight?

A. A lot of effective diet pills are available.

B. Body image has nothing to do with good food.

C. They have been made fully aware of its dangers.

D. There are too many overweight people in the world.

【解析】选C。推理判断题。在第三段首先提出了观点“不能抱怨”,第二句话The dangers of the problem have been drilled into us by public-health campaigns since 2001 and the message is getting through—up to a point.指出了原因:这个问题的危害已经多次告知我们了,没有借口不去解决。因此可知选C项。

61. The example of Finland is used to illustrate   .

A. the cause of heart disease

B. the fashion of body shaping

C. the effectiveness of a campaign

D. the history of a body-conscious country

【解析】选C。推理判断题。芬兰的健康运动使这个国家的心脏病死亡率大大降低,足以证明健康运动的有效性。

62. Which would be the best title for the passage?

A. Actions or Excuses?

B. Overweight or Underweight?

C. WHO in a Dilemma

D. No Longer Dying of Hunger

【解析】选A。主旨大意题。文章讲述了很多人把肥胖归因于食品、不经常运动,甚至是父母的基因等这些错误的想法,作者在文章的最后指出不应该抱怨,没有借口,应该采取行动。故A项正确。

(2013·江西卷·C)

Many people think that listening is a passive business.It is just the opposite.Listening well is an active exercise of our attention and hard work.It is because they do not realize this,or because they are not willing to do the work,that most people do not listen well.

Listening well also requires total concentration upon someone else.An essential part of listening well is the rule known as“bracketing”.Bracketing includes the temporary giving up or setting aside of your own prejudices and desires,to experience as far as possible someone else’s world from the inside,stepping into his or her shoes.Moreover,since listening well involves bracketing,it also involves a temporary acceptance of the other person.Sensing this acceptance,the speaker will seem quite willing to open up the inner part of his or her mind to the listener.True communication is under way.The energy required for listening well is so great that it can be accomplished only by the will to extend oneself for mutual growth.

Most of the time we lack this energy.Even though we may feel in our business dealings or social relationships that we are listening well,what we are usually doing is listening selectively.Often we have a prepared list in mind and wonder,as we listen,how we can achieve certain desired results to get the conversation over as quickly as possible or redirected in ways more satisfactory to us.Many of us are far more interested in talking than in listening,or we simply refuse to listen to what we don’t want to hear.

It wasn’t until toward the end of my doctor career that I have found the knowledge that one is being truly listened to is frequently therapeutic(有疗效的).In about a quarter of the patients I saw,surprising improvement was shown during the first few months of the psychotherapy(心理疗法),before any of the roots of problems had been uncovered or explained.There are several reasons for this phenomenon,but chief among them,I believe,was the patient’s sense that he or she was being truly listened to,often for the first time in years,and for some,perhaps for the first time ever.

【文章大意】倾听是一个积极的过程,需要的是我们集中注意力和刻苦练习。

66.The phrase“stepping into his or her shoes”in Paragraph 2 probably means   .

A.preparing a topic list first

B.focusing on one’s own mind

C.directing the talk to the desired results

D.experiencing the speaker’s inside world

【解析】选D。细节理解题。从前面的“to experience as far as possible someone else’s world from the inside”可知短语的意思是:体验说话者的内心世界,故选D。

67. What is mainly discussed in Paragraph 2?

A. How to listen well. B. What to listen to.

C. Benefits of listening. D. Problems in listening.

【解析】选A。段落主旨题。这段文字从开始到结束都是围绕着listening well展开的,说明了倾听的要求和注意事项。

68. According to the author,in communication people tend to   .

A. listen actively

B. listen purposefully

C. set aside their prejudices

D. open up their inner mind

【解析】选B。细节理解题。从第三段的“...what we are usually doing is listening selectively”,可知B项是正确答案:人们在交流中带着目的有选择地听。

69. According to the author,the patients improved mainly because   .

A. they were taken good care of

B. they knew they were truly listened to

C. they had partners to talk to

D. they knew the roots of problems

【解析】选B。推理判断题。从倒数第一段的“the knowledge that one is being truly listened to is frequently therapeutic”可知,病人因为觉得被别人倾听所以病情好转。

70. What type of writing is the article likely to be?

A. Science fiction. B. A news report.

C. A medical report. D. Popular science.

【解析】选D。文章出处题。整篇文章是围绕如何练习倾听展开的,是关于通俗科学方面的文章,不是科幻小说、新闻报道、医学报道之类的文章。故选D。

(2013·广东卷·D)

While Jennifer was at home taking an online exam for her business law class,a monitor(监控器)a few hundred miles away was watching her every move.

Using a web camera equipped in Jennifer’s Los Angeles apartment, the monitor in Phoenix tracked how frequently her eyes moved from the computer screen and listened for the secret sounds of a possible helper in the room. Her Internet access was locked—remotely—to prevent Internet searches, and her typing style was analyzed to make sure she was who she said she was:Did she enter her student number at the same speed as she had in the past?Or was she slowing down?

In the battle against cheating, this is the cutting edge and a key to encourage honesty in the booming field of online education.The technology gives trust to the entire system, to the institution and to online education in general.Only with solid measures against cheating, experts say,can Internet universities show that their exams and diplomas are valid—that students haven’t just searched the Internet to get the right answers.

Although online classes have existed for more than a decade, the concern over cheating has become sharper in the last year with the growth of“open online courses.”Private colleges, public universities and corporations are jumping into the online education field, spending millions of dollars to attract potential students, while also taking steps to help guarantee honesty at a distance.

Aside from the web cameras, a number of other high-tech methods are becoming increasingly popular. Among them are programs that check students’identities using personal information, such as the telephone numbers they once used.

Other programs can produce unique exams by drawing on a large list of questions and can recognize possible cheaters by analyzing whether difficult test questions are answered at the same speed as easy ones.As in many university classes, term papers are scanned against some large Internet data banks for cheating.

【文章大意】本文为一篇说明文,讲述了当今网络课程流行,如何去处理网络课程中的作弊问题。

41. Why was Jennifer watched in an online exam?

A. To correct her typing mistakes.

B. To find her secrets in the room.

C. To prevent her from slowing down.

D. To keep her from dishonest behaviors.

【解析】选D。推理判断题。根据第二段“and her typing style was analyzed to make sure she was who she said she was:Did she enter her student number at the same speed as she had in the past?”一句得知监控Jennifer的原因是为了确保她不作弊。

42.The underlined expression cutting edge in Paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to   .

A.advanced technique B.sharpening tool

C.effective rule D.dividing line

【解析】选A。词义猜测题。cutting edge与key是并列关系,同时二者都可以做到鼓励诚实行为。前面this所指代的为上文中提到的防作弊科学技术,由此得知cutting edge应该为advanced technique。

43.For Internet universities,exams and diplomas will be valid if   .

A.they can attract potential students

B.they can defeat academic cheating

C.they offer students online help

D.they offer many online courses

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第三段最后一句“Only with solid measures against cheating,experts say,can Internet universities show that their exams and diplomas are valid—that students haven’t just searched the Internet to get the right answers.”可知如果网络大学想使其考试和文凭有效就必须打击作弊。故B项正确。

44.Some programs can find out possible cheaters by   .

A.checking the question answering speed

B.producing a large number of questions

C.scanning the Internet test questions

D.giving difficult test questions

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据最后一段的第一句“Other programs can produce unique exams by drawing on a large list of questions and can recognize possible cheaters by analyzing whether difficult test questions are answered at the same speed as easy ones.”可知通过分析答题速度可推断出是否在作弊。

45. Which of the following is the best title of this passage?

A.The Advantages of Online Exams

B.The High-tech Methods in Online Courses

C.The Fight against Cheating in Online Education

D.The War against the Booming of Online Education

【解析】选C。主旨大意题。文章主题句位于第三段第一句“In the battle against cheating,this is the cutting edge and a key to encourage honesty in the booming field of online education.”可得知本文主要讨论网络课程的防作弊问题。

(2013·浙江卷·D)

In 1974, after filling out fifty applications, going through four interviews, and winning one offer, I took what I could get—a teaching job at what I considered a distant wild area: western New Jersey. My characteristic optimism was alive only when I reminded myself that I would be doing what I had wanted to do since I was fourteen—teaching English.

School started, but I felt more and more as if I were in a foreign country. Was this rural area really New Jersey? My students took a week off when hunting season began. I was told they were also frequently absent in late October to help their fathers make hay on the farms. I was a young woman from New York City, who thought that“Make hay while the sun shines”just meant to have a good time.

But, still, I was teaching English. I worked hard, taking time off only to eat and sleep. And then there was my sixth-grade class—seventeen boys and five girls who were only six years younger than me. I had a problem long before I knew it. I was struggling in my work as a young idealistic teacher. I wanted to make literature come alive and to promote a love of the written word. The students wanted to throw spitballs and whisper dirty words in the back of the room.

In college I had been taught that a successful educator should ignore bad behavior. So I did, confident that, as the textbook had said, the bad behavior would disappear as I gave my students positive attention. It sounds reasonable, but the text evidently ignored the fact that humans, particularly teenagers, rarely seem reasonable. By the time my boss, who was also my taskmaster, known to be the strictest, most demanding, most quick to fire inexperienced teachers, came into the classroom to observe me, the students exhibited very little good behavior to praise.

My boss sat in the back of the room. The boys in the class were making animal noises, hitting each other while the girls filed their nails or read magazines. I just pretended it all wasn’t happening, and went on lecturing and tried to ask some inspiring questions. My boss, sitting in the back of the room, seemed to be growing bigger and bigger. After twenty minutes he left, silently. Visions of unemployment marched before my eyes.

I felt mildly victorious that I got through the rest of class without crying, but at my next free period I had to face him. I wondered if he would let me finish out the day. I walked to his office, took a deep breath, and opened the door.

He was sitting in his chair, and he looked at me long and hard. I said nothing. All I could think of was that I was not an English teacher;I had been lying to myself, pretending that everything was fine.

When he spoke, he said simply, without accusation, “You had nothing to say to them. ”

“You had nothing to say to them.”he repeated. “No wonder they’re bored. Why not get to the meat of the literature and stop talking about symbolism. Talk with them, not at them. And more important, why do you ignore their bad behavior?”We talked. He named my problems and offered solutions. We role-played. He was the bad student, and I was the forceful, yet, warm, teacher.

As the year progressed, we spent many hours discussing literature and ideas about human beings and their motivations. He helped me identify my weaknesses and my strengths. In short, he made a teacher of me by teaching me the reality of Emerson’s words:“The secret to education lies in respecting the pupil.”

Fifteen years later I still drive that same winding road to the same school. Thanks to the help I received that difficult first year, the school is my home now.

【文章大意】工作难找,好在已经找到;地点偏远,好在工作是我梦寐以求的。在实际工作中,在教学的第一年里,我从the boss身上学到教育的真谛:那就是尊重学生。那之后的15年里,我一直工作在那里,学校已经成为我的家。

55.It can be inferred from the story that in 1974   .

A.the writer became an optimistic person

B.the writer was very happy about her new job

C.it was rather difficult to get a job in the USA

D.it was easy to get a teaching job in New Jersey

【解析】选C。推理判断题。从第一段作者找工作的经历可以判断出:作者找工作找得十分辛苦。填了50张申请表、参加了4次面试,总算在一个偏远、荒凉的地方找到一份教英语的工作。当然,尽管当老师是作者的梦想,但是,学校的位置却不是十分令人满意。故选C。

56.According to the passage, which of the following is most probably the writer’s problem as a new teacher?

A.She had blind trust in what she learnt at college.

B.She didn’t ask experienced teachers for advice.

C.She took too much time off to eat and sleep.

D.She didn’t like teaching English literature.

【解析】选A。推理判断题。从整篇文章可以看出, 作者勤奋工作、虚心向老教师学习、喜欢文学, 但是她太理想化、太相信书本知识。故选A。

57.What is the writer’s biggest worry after her taskmaster’s observation of her class?

A.She might lose her teaching job.

B.She might lose her students’ respect.

C.She couldn’t teach the same class any more.

D.She couldn’t ignore her students’ bad behavior any more.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。从第五段最后一句可以看出, 在taskmaster听课之后, 她认为接下来的事情就是被解雇。这是她最担心的事。故选A。

58.Which of the following gives the writer a sense of mild victory?

A.Her talk about symbolism sounded convincing.

B.Her students behaved a little better than usual.

C.She managed to finish the class without crying.

D.She was invited for a talk by her boss after class.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。第六段第一句告诉我们, 她的成功就在于没有哭泣而上完了整节课。故选C。

59.The students behaved badly in the writer’s classes because   .

A.they were eager to embarrass her

B.she didn’t really understand them

C.they didn’t regard her as a good teacher

D.she didn’t have a good command of English

【解析】选B。推理判断题。从taskmaster的评论可以判断, 学生在课堂上表现欠佳的原因在于老师的讲解空洞无物, 老师所讲并非学生喜欢学的东西。故选B。

60.The taskmaster’s attitude towards the writer after his observation of her class can be best described as   .

A.cruel but encouraging B.fierce but forgiving

C.sincere and supportive D.angry and aggressive

【解析】选C。观点态度题。从taskmaster的所说、所做, 可以看出他的认真, 他对作者工作的支持(指出问题、给出解决方案、扮演角色让作者感受教学的艺术等)。故选C。

(2013·重庆卷·A)

The morning had been a disaster. My tooth was aching, and I’d been in an argument with a friend. Her words still hurt:“The trouble with you is that you won’t put yourself in my place. Can’t you see things from my point of view?”I shook my head stubbornly—and felt the ache in my tooth. I’d thought I could hold out till my dentist came back from holiday, but the pain was really unbearable. I started calling the dentists in the phone book, but no one could see me immediately. Finally, at about lunchtime, I got lucky.

“If you come by right now, ”the receptionist said, “the dentist will fit you in. ”

I took my purse and keys and rushed to my car. But suddenly I began to doubt about the dentist. What kind of dentist would be so eager to treat someone at such short notice? Why wasn’t he as busy as the others?

In the dentist’s office, I sat down and looked around. I saw nothing but the bare walls and I became even more worried. The assistant noticed my nervousness and placed her warm hand over my ice-cold one.

When I told her my fears, she laughed and said, “Don’t worry. The dentist is very good. ”

“How long do I have to wait for him?”I asked impatiently.

“Come on, he is coming. Just lie down and relax. And enjoy the artwork, ”the assistant said.

“The artwork?”I was puzzled.

The chair went back. Suddenly I smiled. There was a beautiful picture, right where I could enjoy it: on the ceiling. How considerate the dentist was! At that moment, I began to understand what my friend meant by her words.

What a relief!

【文章大意】那天早上朋友抱怨我不能站在对方立场上考虑问题的话伤害了我,让我感觉牙疼更加难以忍受,在看牙的过程中牙医为了减轻病人的疼痛在天花板上放了很美的图画供病人欣赏这让我开始真正理解朋友所说的话的含义。

56.Which of the following best describes the author’s feeling that morning?

A.Cheerful. B.Nervous.

C.Satisfied. D.Upset.

【解析】选D。推理判断题。作者那天早上和朋友发生的争执,朋友的话伤害了她再加上牙疼自然心情很“沮丧“。

57.What made the author begin to doubt about the dentist?

A.The dentist’s agreeing to treat her at very short notice.

B.The dentist’s being as busy as the other dentists.

C.The surroundings of the dentist’s office.

D.The laughing assistant of the dentist.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。由第三段的第三句话“What kind of dentist would be so eager to treat someone at such short notice?”即什么样的牙医愿意这么快地接受我临时通知的治疗呢,因此A项符合语境。

58.Why did the author suddenly smile?

A.Because the dentist came at last.

B.Because she saw a picture on the ceiling.

C.Because she could relax in the chair.

D.Because the assistant kept comforting her.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。由倒数第二段可知我是因为看到天花板上美丽的图画突然笑了。

59.What did the author learn from her experience most probably?

A.Strike while the iron is hot.

B.Have a good word for one’s friend.

C.Put oneself in other’s shoes.

D.A friend in need is a friend indeed.

【解析】选C。推理判断题,在治疗牙疼的过程中牙医的行为让作者真正明白了朋友所说的“站在对方的角度考虑问题”,故选C。A项表示“趁热打铁”;B项表示“替朋友说好话”;D项表示“患难见真情”。

(2013·辽宁卷·D)

“Indeed,”George Washington wrote in his diary in 1785, “some kind of fly, or bug, had begun to eat the leaves before I left home.”But the father of America was not the father ofbug. When Washington wrote that, Englishmen had been referring to insects as bugs for more than a century, and Americans had already created lightning-bug(萤火虫). But the English were soon to stop using the bugs in their language, leaving it to the Americans to call a bug abugin the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

The Americanbugcould also be a person, referring to someone who was crazy about a particular activity. Althoughfanbecame the usual term, sports fans used to be called racing bugs, baseball bugs, and the like.

Or the bug could be a small machine or object, for example, a bug-shaped car. The bug could also be a burglar alarm, from which comes the expressionto bug, that is, “to install(安装)an alarm”. Now it means a small piece of equipment that people use for listening secretly to others’ conversations. Since the 1840s, to bughas long meant“to cheat”, and since the 1940s it has been annoying.

We also know the bug as a flaw in a computer program or other design. That meaning dates back to the time of Thomas Edison. In 1878 he explained bugs as“little problems and difficulties”that required months of study and labor to overcome in developing a successful product. In 1889 it was recorded that Edison“had been up the two previous nights discovering‘a bug’in his invented record player. ”

【文章大意】本文介绍了bug这个词在英语中的应用,特别是在美语中它的广泛应用和不同的含义。

68.We learn from Paragraph 1 that   .

A.Americans had difficulty in learning to use the word bug

B.George Washington was the first person to call an insect a bug

C.the wordbugwas still popularly used in English in the nineteenth century

D.both Englishmen and Americans used the wordbugin the eighteenth century

【解析】选D。推理判断题。根据文章第一段中的最后一句话“英国人不再用bug,而美国人继续在19世纪和20世纪称小虫为bug”,由此可知在18世纪,两国人都在用bug这个单词。

69.What does the word“flaw”in the last paragraph probably mean?

A.Explanation. B.Finding.

C.Origin. D.Fault.

【解析】选D。词义猜测题。根据下文中出现的little problems and difficulties可以推测这个词的含义。

70.The passage is mainly concerned with   .

A.the misunderstanding of the wordbug

B.the development of the wordbug

C.the public views of the wordbug

D.the special characteristics of the wordbug

【解析】选B。主旨大意题。纵观全文,本文介绍了bug这个词自18世纪以来的发展和在当代美语中的应用。故选B。

(2013·天津卷·A)

Guide to Stockholm University Library

Our library offers different types of studying places and provides a good studying environment.



Zones

The library is divided into different zones. The upper floor is a quiet zone with over a thousand places for silent reading,and places where you can sit and work with your own computer. The reading places consist mostly of tables and chairs. The ground floor is the zone where you can talk. Here you can find sofas and armchairs for group work.



Computers

You can use your own computer to connect to the wi-fi specially prepared for notebook computers; you can also use library computers,which contain the most commonly used applications,such as Microsoft Office. They are situated in the area known as the Experimental Field on the ground floor.



Group-study Places

If you want to discuss freely without disturbing others,you can book a study room or sit at a table on the ground floor. Some study rooms are for 2-3 people and others can hold up to 6-8 people. All rooms are marked on the library maps.

There are 40 group-study rooms that must be booked via the website. To book,you need an active University account and a valid University card. You can use a room three hours per day,nine hours at most per week.

Storage of Study Material

The library has lockers for students to store course literature. When you have obtained at least 40 credits(学分),you may rent a locker and pay 400 SEK for a year’s rental period.



Rules to be Followed

Mobile phone conversations are not permitted anywhere in the library. Keep your phone on silent as if you were in a lecture and exit the library if you need to receive calls.

Please note that food and fruit are forbidden in the library,but you are allowed to have drinks and sweets with you.

【文章大意】斯德哥尔摩大学的图书馆提供不同形式学习的地方,给学生提供了好的学习环境。

36.The library’s upper floor is mainly for students to   .

A.read in a quiet place

B.have group discussions

C.take comfortable seats

D.get their computers fixed

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据Zones部分第二句话可知,顶楼是个安静的地方可以供学生默读,由此可知A项正确。

37.Library computers on the ground floor   .

A.help students with their field experiments

B.contain software essential for schoolwork

C.are for those who want to access the wi-fi

D.are mostly used for filling out application forms

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据Computers部分第一句话可知,图书馆的电脑包含了像办公软件这样最常用的应用软件,故选项B正确。A、C、D三项的说法与原文不符。

38.What condition should be met to book a group-study room?

A.A group must consist of 8 people.

B.Three-hour use per day is the minimum.

C.One should first register at the university.

D.Applicants must mark the room on the map.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据Group-study Places部分第一段第二句,可知A错误;根据最后一句可知D错误。根据第二段前两句“你需要大学的激活的帐号和有效的卡,”推断应先注册可知C正确;根据第二段最后一句可知B错误。

39.A student can rent a locker in the library if he   .

A.can afford the rental fee

B.attends certain courses

C.has nowhere to put his books

D.has earned the required credits

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据Storage of Study Material部分可知,当你获得至少40个学分时,你就可以租个存物柜了。

40.What should NOT be brought into the library?

A.Mobile phones.

B.Orange juice.

C.Candy.


D.Sandwiches.

【解析】选D。推理判断题。根据文章最后一句可知,食物和水果是禁止的,三明治属于食物,故选D。


六、社会生活类


(2013·新课标全国卷Ⅱ·C) (2013·大纲版全国卷·C)

  Given that many people’s moods(情绪)are regulated by the chemical action of chocolate,it was probably only a matter of time before somebody made the chocolate shop similar to a drugstore of Chinese medicine.Looking like a setting from the film Charlie & the Chocolate Factory,Singapore’s Chocolate Research Facility(CRF)has over 100 varieties of chocolates.Its founder is Chris Lee who grew up at his parents’corner store with one hand almost always in the jar of sweets.

  If the CRF seems to be a smart idea,that’s because Lee is not merely a seasoned salesperson but also head of a marketing department that has business relations with big names such as Levi’s and Sony.That idea surely results in the imagination at work when it comes to making different flavored(味道)chocolates.

  The CRF’s produce is“green”,made within the country and divided into 10 lines,with the Alcohol Series being the most popular.The Exotic Series—with Sichuan pepper,red bean(豆),cheese and other flavors—also does well and is fun to taste.And for chocolate snobs,who think that they have a better knowledge of chocolate than others,the Connoisseur Series uses cocoa beans from Togo,Cuba,Venezuela,and Ghana,among others.

【文章大意】本文介绍了新加坡的Chocolate Research Facility,它拥有100多种巧克力,并且着重介绍了几种很有风味的巧克力。

64. What is good about chocolate?

A. It serves as a suitable gift.

B. It works as an effective medicine.

C. It helps improve the state of mind.

D. It strengthens business relations.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据文章第一句可知,巧克力中化学成分可以调整人的情绪,故选C。

65. Why is Chris Lee able to develop his idea of the CRF?

A. He knows the importance of research.

B. He learns form shops of similar types.

C. He has the support of many big names.

D. He has a lot of marketing experience.

【解析】选D。推理判断题。根据第二段的that’s because Lee is not merely a seasoned salesperson but also head of a marketing department可知,Lee创办CRF不仅仅是因为他是一位有经验的销售员,而且还因为他是营销部门的领导,这说明他有很多营销经验。由此可知选D。

66. Which line of the CRF produce sells best?

A. The Connoisseur Series.

B. The Exotic Series.

C. The Alcohol Series.

D. The Sichuan Series.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据最后一段的with the Alcohol Series being the most popular可知。

67. The words“chocolate snobs”in Paragraph 3 probably refer to people who    .

A. are particular about chocolate

B. know little about cocoa beans

C. look down upon others

D. like to try new flavors

【解析】选A。猜测词义题。根据最后一段的chocolate snobs,who think that they have a better knowledge of chocolate than others...可知,chocolate snobs是指那些自认为对巧克力了解很多的人,所以他们对巧克力比较挑剔。snob势利小人,自命不凡的人。故选A。

(2013·陕西卷·B)

In 1978, I was 18 and was working as a nurse in a small town about 270 km away from Sydney, Australia. I was looking forward to having five days off from duty. Unfortunately, the only one train a day back to my home in Sydney had already left. So I thought I’d hitch a ride(搭便车).

I waited by the side of the highway for three hours but no one stopped for me. Finally, a man walked over and introduced himself as Gordon. He said that although he couldn’t give me a lift, I should come back to his house for lunch. He noticed me standing for hours in the November heat and thought I must be hungry. I was doubtful as a young girl but he assured(使……放心)me I was safe, and he also offered to help me find a lift home afterwards. When we arrived at his house, he made us sandwiches. After lunch, he helped me find a lift home.

Twenty-five years later, in 2003, while I was driving to a nearby town one day, I saw an elderly man standing in the glaring heat, trying to hitch a ride. I thought it was another chance to repay someone for the favour I’d been given decades earlier. I pulled over and picked him up. I made him comfortable on the back seat and offered him some water.

After a few moments of small talk, the man said to me, “You haven’t changed a bit, even your red hair is still the same. ”

I couldn’t remember where I’d met him. He then told me he was the man who had given me lunch and helped me find a lift all those years ago. It was Gordon.

【文章大意】25年前,一位名叫Gordon的人曾在作者遇到困难时施以援手,没想到25年后当作者帮助别人时,被帮助的那个人恰巧是Gordon。

50.The author had to hitch a ride one day in 1978 because    .

A.her work delayed her trip to Sydney

B.she was going home for her holidays

C.the town was far away from Sydney

D.she missed the only train back home

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第一段第三句话可知当时作者回家需乘坐的唯一一趟火车已经开走了,可知答案为D。A选项没有提到;文章没有说作者要回家度假,故B不对;根据第一段第一句话可知作者工作的小镇离悉尼约270千米,但这并不是作者要搭便车回家的原因,选项与问题不相关,故C也不对。

51. Which of the following did Gordon do according to Paragraph 2?

A.He helped the girl find a ride.

B.He gave the girl a ride back home.

C.He bought sandwiches for the girl.

D.He watched the girl for three hours.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第二段最后一句可知吃过午饭后,这个人帮作者找到了回家搭乘的便车,故排除B选A。此人给作者做的三明治而不是买的,故C不对;此人注意到作者等车等了3个小时,而不是看了作者3个小时,故D不对。

52.The reason why the author offered a lift to the elderly man was that    .

A.she realized he was Gordon

B.she had known him for decades

C.she was going to the nearby town

D.she wanted to repay the favour she once got

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第三段第二句可知作者认为那是一次很好的机会来回报自己多年前得到的帮助,故选D。这位老人告诉作者他的身份,作者才认出他是25年前帮助自己的人,所以A和B都不对。C项与问题不相关。

53. What does the author want to tell the readers through the story?

A. Giving sometimes produces nice results.

B. Those who give rides will be repaid.

C. Good manners bring about happiness.

D. People should offer free rides to others.

【解析】选A。主旨大意题。别人帮助了作者,作者在帮别人时,那个被帮助的人恰恰是曾经帮助过自己的人,这个故事告诉我们帮助别人有时就是帮助自己,付出会有好的回报,故选A。

(2013·山东卷·A)

Jimmy is an automotive mechanic, but he lost his job a few months ago. He has a good heart, but always feared applying for a new job.

One day, he gathered up all his strength and decided to attend a job interview. His appointment was at 10 am and it was already 8:30. While waiting for a bus to the office where he was supposed to be interviewed, he saw an elderly man wildly kicking the tyre of his car. Obviously there was something wrong with the car. Jimmy immediately went up to lend him a hand. When Jimmy finished working on the car, the old man asked him how much he should pay for the service. Jimmy said there was no need to pay him; he just helped someone in need, and he had to rush for an interview. Then the old man said, “Well, I could take you to the office for your interview. It’s the least I could do. Please, I insist. ”Jimmy agreed.

Upon arrival, Jimmy found a long line of applicants waiting to be interviewed. Jimmy still had some grease on him after the car repair, but he did not have much time to wash it off or have a change of shirt. One by one, the applicants left the interviewer’s office with disappointed looks on their faces. Finally his name was called. The interviewer was sitting on a large chair facing the office window. Rocking the chair back and forth, he asked, “Do you really need to be interviewed?”Jimmy’s heart sank. “With the way I look now, how could I possibly pass this interview?”he thought to himself.

Then the interviewer turned the chair and to Jimmy’s surprise, it was the old man he helped earlier in the morning. It turned out he was the General Manager of the company.

“Sorry I had to keep you waiting, but I was pretty sure I made the right decision to have you as part of our workforce before you even stepped into this office. I just know you’d be a trustworthy worker. Congratulations!”Jimmy sat down and they shared a cup of well-deserved coffee as he landed himself a new job.

【文章大意】这是一篇人物类的记叙文, 主要叙述了Jimmy失业后求职的经历, 告诉我们善有善报。

56. Why did Jimmy apply for a new job?

A.He was out of work.

B.He was bored with his job.

C.He wanted a higher position.

D.He hoped to find a better boss.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第一段的but he lost his job a few months ago可知答案选A。

57. What did Jimmy see on the way to the interview?

A.A friend’s car had a flat tyre.

B.A wild man was pushing a car.

C.A terrible car accident happened.

D.An old man’s car broke down.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第二段的While waiting for...there was something wrong with the car.可知老人的车出了故障,所以选D。

58. Why did the old man offer Jimmy a ride?

A.He was also to be interviewed.

B.He needed a travelling companion.

C.He always helped people in need.

D.He was thankful to Jimmy.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第二段最后几句老人所说的话可知,老人让Jimmy搭车,是想向Jimmy表示感谢。

59. How did Jimmy feel on hearing the interviewer’s question?

A.He was sorry for the other applicants.

B.There was no hope for him to get the job.

C.He regretted helping the old man.

D.The interviewer was very rude.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第三段的Jimmy’s heart sank.“With the way I look now,how could I...”可知Jimmy认为自己没有希望得到这份工作。所以选B。

60. What can we learn from Jimmy’s experience?

A.Where there’s a will, there’s a way.

B.A friend in need is a friend indeed.

C.Good is rewarded with good.

D.Two heads are better than one.

【解析】选C。推理判断题。根据第二段及最后一段可知,我们从Jimmy的经历中了解到好人有好报,所以选C。A项有志者,事竟成;B项患难见真情;D项三个臭皮匠胜过诸葛亮。

(2013·山东卷·D)

Sparrow is a fast-food chain with 200 restaurants. Some years ago, the group to which Sparrow belonged was taken over by another company. Although Sparrow showed no sign of declining, the chain was generally in an unhealthy state. With more and more fast-food concepts reaching the market, the Sparrow menu had to struggle for attention. And to make matters worse, its new owner had no plans to give it the funds it required.

Sparrow failed to grow for another two years, until a new CEO, Carl Pearson, decided to build up its market share. He did a survey, which showed that consumers who already used Sparrow restaurants were extremely positive about the chain, while customers of other fast-food chains were unwilling to turn away from them. Sparrow had to develop a new promotional campaign.

Pearson faced a battle over the future of the Sparrow brand. The chain’s owner now favored rebranding Sparrow as Marcy’s restaurants.Pearson resisted, arguing for an advertising campaign designed to convince customers that visits to Sparrow restaurants were fun. Such an attempt to establish a positive relationship between a company and the general public was unusual for that time. Pearson strongly believed that numbers were the key to success, rather than customers spending power. Finally, the owner accepted his idea.

The campaign itself changed the traditional advertising style of the fast-food industry. The TV ads of Sparrow focused on entertainment and featured original songs performed by a variety of stars.Instead of showing the superiority of a specific product, the intention was to put Sparrow in the hearts of potential customers.

Pearson also made other decisions which he believed would contribute to the new Sparrow image.For example, he offered to lower the rent of any restaurants which achieved a certain increase in their turnover(营业额).

These efforts paid off, and Sparrow soon became one of the most successful fast-food chains in the regions where it operated.

【文章大意】本文主要介绍Sparrow的CEO——Pearson是如何通过开展全新的广告活动帮助公司走出发展低谷并获得巨大成功的。

71. Which was one of the problems Sparrow faced before Pearson became CEO?

A.The number of its customers was declining.

B.Its customers found the food unhealthy.

C.It was in need of financial support.

D.Most of its restaurants were closed.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第一段最后一句“And to make matters worse, its new owner had no plans to give it the funds it required.”可知在Pearson成为Sparrow的CEO之前, 这家公司需要经济支持, 所以选C。而A和B两个选项中含有文章词汇decline, unhealthy, 但与原句意思不符, D项文中没提, 所以选C。

72.What does the underlined word“them”in Paragraph 2 refer to?

A.Customers of Sparrow restaurants.

B.Sparrow restaurants.

C.Customers of other fast-food chains.

D.Other fast-food chains.

【解析】选D。词义猜测题。根据第二段第二句“He did a survey, which showed that...while customers of other fast-food chains were unwilling to turn away from them.”可猜测出them指的是other fast-food chains, 所以选D。

73.For what purpose did Pearson start the advertising campaign?

A.To build a good relationship with the public.

B.To stress the unusual tradition of Sparrow.

C.To learn about customers’ spending power.

D.To meet the challenge from Marcy’s restaurants.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第三段第三句“Pearson resisted, arguing....”及第四句“Such an attempt to establish a positive relationship between....”可知, 他开展广告活动的目的是建立公司与公众之间的良好的关系。所以选A。

74.The TV ads of Sparrow    .

A.changed people’s views on pop stars

B.amused the public with original songs

C.focused on the superiority of its products

D.influenced the eating habits of the audience

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第四段最后一句“Instead of showing the superiority of a specific product, the intention was to put Sparrow in the hearts of potential customers.”可知C项错误;而A项错在on pop stars, D项中影响观众的饮食习惯是文章中未涉及的。而B项与第四段中的The TV ads of Sparrow focused on entertainment and featured original songs performed by a variety of stars.相符, 所以选B。

75.What was Pearson’s achievement as a CEO?

A.He managed to pay off Sparrow’s debts.

B.He made Sparrow much more competitive.

C.He helped Sparrow take over a company.

D.He improved the welfare of Sparrow employees.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据最后两段可知他作为CEO使得该公司成为最成功的快餐连锁店之一。所以可知他使得该公司更具有竞争力了, 所以选B。而A项还清债务;C项接管公司;D项提高员工福利都是文章中没提及的, 故选B。

(2013·浙江卷·A)

No one knows for sure when advertising first started. It is possible that it grew out of the discovery that some people did certain kinds of work better than others did them. That led to the concept of specialization, which means that people would specialize, or focus, on doing one specific job.

Let’s take a man we’ll call Mr.Fielder, for example. He did everything connected with farming. He planted seeds, tended the fields, and harvested and sold his crops. At the same time, he did many other jobs on the farm. However, he didn’t make the bricks for his house, cut his trees into boards, make the plows(犁), or any of the other hundreds of things a farm needs. Instead, he got them from people who specialized in doing each of those things.

Suppose there was another man we shall call Mr.Plowright. Using what he knew about farming and working with iron, Mr.Plowright invented a plow that made farming easier. Mr.Plowright did not really like farming himself and wanted to specialize in making really good plows. Perhaps, he thought, other farmers will trade what they grow for one of my plows.

How did Mr.Plowright let people know what he was doing? Why, he advertised, of course. First he opened a shop and then he put up a sign outside the shop to attract customers. That sign may have been no more than a plow carved into a piece of wood and a simple arrow pointing to the shop door. It was probably all the information people needed to find Mr.Plowright and his really good plows.

Many historians believe that the first outdoor signs were used about five thousand years ago. Even before most people could read, they understood such signs. Shopkeepers would carve into stone, clay, or wood symbols for the products they had for sale.

A medium, in advertising talk, is the way you communicate your message. You might say that the first medium used in advertising wassigns with symbols. The second medium wasaudio, or sound, although that term is not used exactly in the way we use it today. Originally, just the human voice and maybe some kind of simple instrument, such as a bell, were used to get people’s attention.

A crier, in the historical sense, is not someone who weeps easily. It is someone, probably a man, with a voice loud enough to be heard over the other noises of a city. In ancient Egypt, shopkeepers might hire such a person to spread the news about their products.Often this earliest form of advertising involved a newly arrived ship loaded with goods.Perhaps the crier described the goods, explained where they came from, and praised their quality. His job was, in other words, not too different from a TV or radio commercial in today’s world.

  【文章大意】当今社会,广告铺天盖地、无孔不入。但是,你知道广告何时、又是怎样出现的吗?

41.What probably led to the start of advertising?

A.The discovery of iron.

B.The specialization of labor.

C.The appearance of new jobs.

D.The development of farming techniques.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。从文章的第一段可以看出,因为some people did certain kinds of work better than others did them,导致了specialization的出现,从而解释了广告的出现。故选B。

42.To advertise his plows,Mr.Plowright   .

A.praised his plows in public

B.placed a sign outside the shop

C.hung an arrow pointing to the shop

D.showed his products to the customers

【解析】选B。细节理解题。文章的第四段第三句告诉我们,Mr. Plowright做广告的方法就是,在店铺外面放置一个标志来吸引顾客。故选B。

43.The writer makes up the two stories of Mr.Fielder and Mr.Plowright in order to   .

A.explain the origin of advertising

B.predict the future of advertising

C.expose problems in advertising

D.provide suggestions for advertising

【解析】选A。推理判断题。作者用第二、三两段举两个例子的目的就是要佐证第一段提出的关于广告起源的假设:人各有所长——产生了社会分工的不同——出现了广告。故选A。

44.In ancient Egypt, a crier was probably someone who   .

A.owned a ship

B.had the loudest voice

C.ran a shop selling goods to farmers

D.functioned like today’s TV or radio commercial

【解析】选D。细节理解题。从文章的最后一段最后一句可以看出:当时的crier的作用与今天的电视、广播广告差不多。故选D。

45.The last two paragraphs are mainly about   .

A.the history of advertising

B.the benefits of advertising

C.the early forms of advertising

D.the basic design of advertising

【解析】选C。主旨大意题。归纳总结发现,文章最后两段的主旨大意就是讲述原始的广告方式。故选C。

(2013·四川卷·B)

On a sunny day last August, Tim heard some shouting. Looking out to the sea carefully, he saw a couple of kids in a rowboat were being pulled out to sea.

Two 12-year-old boys, Christian and Jack, rowed out a boat to search for a football. Once they’d rowed beyond the calm waters, a beach umbrella tied to the boat caught the wind and pulled the boat into the open water. The pair panicked and tried to row back to shore. But they were no match for it and the boat was out of control.

Tim knew it would soon be swallowed by the waves.

“Everything went quiet in my head, ”Tim recalled(回忆). “I was trying to figure out how to swim to the boys in a straight line. ”

Tim took off his clothes and jumped into the water. Every 500 yards or so, he raised his head to judge his progress. “At one point, I considered turning back, ”he says. “I wondered if I was putting my life at risk.”After 30 minutes of struggling, he was close enough to yell to the boys, “Take down the umbrella!”

Christian made much effort to take down the umbrella. Then Tim was able to catch up and climb aboard the boat. He took over rowing, but the waves were almost too strong for him.

“Let’s aim for the pier(码头), ”Jack said. Tim turned the boat toward it. Soon afterward, waves crashed over the boat, and it began to sink. “Can you guys swim?” he cried. “A little bit, ”the boys said.

Once they were in the water, Tim decided it would be safer and faster for him to pull the boys toward the pier. Christian and Jack were wearing life jackets and floated on their backs. Tim swam toward land as water washed over the boys’ faces.

“Are we almost there?”they asked again and again. “Yes, ”Tim told them each time.

After 30 minutes, they reached the pier.

【文章大意】本文主要讲述了Tim到海中救助两个小男孩的经过。

35.Why did the two boys go to the sea?

A.To go boat rowing.

B.To get back their football.

C.To swim in the open water.

D.To test the umbrella as a sail.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第二段的第一句话“Two 12-year-old boys, Christian and Jack, rowed out a boat to search for a football.”可知选B项。

36.What does“it”in Paragraph 2 refer to?

A.The beach.         B.The water.

C.The boat. D.The wind.

【解析】选D。词义猜测题。根据第二段中的a beach umbrella tied to the boat caught the wind and pulled the boat into the open water.The pair panicked and tried to row back to shore.可知船上的遮阳伞鼓起了风,把船拖向大海中,他们奋力地向岸边划,再结合句子中的短语“be no match for...根本不是……的对手”可知此时他们是在和风较量。故选D项。

37.Why did Tim raise his head regularly?

A.To take in enough fresh air.

B.To consider turning back or not.

C.To check his distance from the boys.

D.To ask the boys to take down the umbrella.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第五段中“Every 500 yards or so, he raised his head to judge his progress.”可知他抬头是为了判断他离两个小男孩还有多远。故选C项。

38.How did the two boys finally reach the pier?

A.They were dragged to the pier by Tim.

B.They swam to the pier all by themselves.

C.They were washed to the pier by the waves.

D.They were carried to the pier by Tim on his back.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第八段的第一句话“Once they were in the water, Tim decided it would be safer and faster for him to pull the boys toward the pier.”可知是Tim在水中拖着两个小男孩游到码头的。故A项正确。

(2013·四川卷·D)

Home to me means a sense of familiarity and nostalgia(怀旧). It’s fun to come home. It looks the same. It smells the same. You’ll realize what’s changed is you. Home is where we can remember pain, love, and some other experiences: We partedhere; My parents methere; I won three championshipshere.

If I close my eyes, I can still have a clear picture in mind of my first home. I walk in the door and see a brown sofa surrounding a low glass-top wooden table. To the right of the living room is my first bedroom. It’s empty, but it’s where my earliest memories are.

There is the dining room table where I celebrated birthdays, and where I cried on Halloween—when I didn’t want to wear the skirt my mother made for me. I always liked standing on that table because it made me feel tall and strong. If I sit at this table, I can see my favorite room in the house, my parents’ room. It is simple: a brown wooden dresser lines, the right side of the wall next to a television and a couple of photos of my grandparents on each side. Their bed is my safe zone. I can jump on it anytime—waking up my parents if I am scared or if I have an important announcement that cannot wait until the morning.

I’m lucky because I know my first home still exists. It exists in my mind and heart, on a physical property(住宅)on West 64thstreet on the western edge of Los Angeles. It is proof I lived, I grew, and I learned.

Sometimes when I feel lost, I lie down and shut my eyes, and I go home. I know it’s where I’ll find my family, my dogs, and my belongings. I purposely leave the window open at night because I know I’ll be blamed by Mom. But I don’t mind, because I want to hear her say my name, which reminds me I’m home.

【文章大意】作者在文中抒发了自己对家的思念, 以及家在她心目中的重要作用。

43.Why does the author call her parents’bed her“safe zone”(Paragraph 3)?

A.It is her favorite place to play.

B.Her needs can be satisfied there.

C.Her grandparents’photos are lined on each side.

D.Her parents always play together with her there.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。根据第三段的最后一句“I can jump on it anytime—waking up my parents if I am scared or if I have an important announcement that cannot wait until the morning.”可知在这里她能随时摆脱掉恐惧,也可以随时说出自己想说的事情,故可推知选B项。

44.What can be learned from the passage?

A.The old furniture is still in the author’s first bedroom.

B.The author can still visit her first physical home in Los Angeles.

C.The author’s favorite room in her first home is the dining room.

D.Many people of the author’s age can still find their first physical homes.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第四段中的“It exists in my mind and heart, on a physical property on West 64thstreet on the western edge of Los Angeles.”可知她的家依然在那个地方,所以她依然可以去洛杉矶的老家看看。故选B项。

45.Sometimes when she feels lost, the author will   .

A.open the window at night

B.lie down in bed to have a dream

C.try to bring back a sense of home

D.go to Los Angeles to visit her mom

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据最后一段中的第一句话“Sometimes when I feel lost, I lie down and shut my eyes, and I go home.”可知并不是真正地回到老家去,而是在所在的地方回忆老家的一切,很显然是想找回家的感觉。故选C项。

46.What is the author’s purpose of writing this passage?

A.To express how much she is attached to her home.

B.To declare how much she loves her first house.

C.To describe the state of her family.

D.To look back on her childhood.

【解析】选A。主旨大意题。作者在文中详细地描述自己原来的家,目的就是表达自己对家的思念,对家的依恋。

(2013·重庆卷·E)

It is widely known that any English conversation begins with The Weather. Such a fixation with the weather finds expression in Dr. Johnson’s famous comment that“When two English meet, their first talk is of weather. ”Though Johnson’s observation is as accurate now as it was over two hundred years ago, most commentators fail to come up with a convincing explanation for this English weather-speak.

Bill Bryson, for example, concludes that, as the English weather is not at all exciting, the obsession with it can hardly be understood. He argues that“To an outsider, the most striking thing about the English weather is that there is not very much of it. ”Simply, the reason is that the unusual and unpredictable weather is almost unknown in the British Isles.

Jeremy Paxman, however, disagrees with Bryson, arguing that the English weather is by nature attractive. Bryson is wrong, he says, because the English preference for the weather has nothing to do with the natural phenomena. “The interest is less in the phenomena themselves, but in uncertainty. ”According to him, the weather in England is very changeable and uncertain and it attracts the English as well as the outsider.

Bryson and Paxman stand for common misconceptions about the weather-speak among the English. Both commentators, somehow, are missing the point. The English weather conversation is not really about the weather at all. English weather-speak is a system of signs, which is developed to help the speakers overcome the natural reserve and actually talk to each other. Everyone knows conversations starting with weather-speak are not requests for weather data. Rather, they are routine greetings, conversation starters or the blank“fillers”. In other words, English weather-speak is a means of social bonding.

【文章大意】文章讲述为什么英国人见面首先谈论天气。

72.The author mentions Dr.Johnson’s comment to show that   .

A.most commentators agree with Dr.Johnson

B.Dr.Johnson is famous for his weather observation

C.the comment was accurate two hundred years ago

D.English conversations usually start with the weather

【解析】选D。推理判断题。根据文章第一段前两句可知作者提到Dr.Johnson的评论是为表明“英语会话通常以天气开始。”

73.What does the underlined word“obsession”most probably refer to?

A.A social trend.

B.An emotional state.

C.A historical concept.

D.An unknown phenomenon.

【解析】选B。词义猜测题。Bill Bryson认为英国的天气一点也不让人兴奋,而人们见面总是以天气开始谈话,因而这是一种“痴迷,着迷”,是一种心理状态。

74.According to the passage,Jeremy Paxman believes that   .

A.Bill Bryson has little knowledge of the weather

B.there is nothing special about the English weather

C.the English weather attracts people to the British Isles

D.English people talk about the weather for its uncertainty

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据倒数第二段引号中的话“The interest is less in the phenomena themselves,but in uncertainty.”可知Jeremy Paxman认为对天气谈论的兴趣不在于天气这一现象本身而在于它的不确定性。

75.What is the author’s main purpose of writing the passage?

A.To explain what English weather-speak is about.

B.To analyse misconceptions about the English weather.

C.To find fault with both Bill Bryson and Jeremy Paxman.

D.To convince people that the English weather is changeable.

【解析】选A。主旨大意题。本文主要围绕英语会话总是以天气开始的原因展开的。

(2013·辽宁卷·A)

China is a land of bicycles. At least it was back in 1992 when I traveled the country. Back then everyone seemed to be riding a bicycle. Millions of them, all black. Cars were rare. Yet since my arrival in Beijing last year, I’ve found the opposite is true. There are millions of cars. However, people still use their bicycles to get around. For many, it’s the easiest and cheapest way to travel today. Bicycles also come in different colors—silver, green, red, blue, yellow, whatever you want.

It’s fun watching people biking. They rush quickly through crossroads, move skillfully through traffic, and ride even on sidewalks(人行道). Bicycles allow people the freedom to move about that cars just can’t provide.

Eager to be part of this aspect of Chinese culture, I decided to buy a bicycle. Great weather accompanied my great buy. I immediately jumped up on my bicycle seat and started home.

My first ride home was orderly(守秩序的). To be safe, I stayed with a“pack”of bikers while cars on the streets came running swiftly out of nowhere at times. I didn’t want to get hit. So I took the ride carefully.

Crossing the streets was the biggest problem. It was a lot like crossing a major highway back in the United States. The streets here were wide, so crossing took time, skill and a little bit of luck.

I finally made it home. The feeling on the bicycle was amazing. The air hitting my face and going through my hair was wonderful. I was sitting on top of the world as I passed by places and people. Biking made me feel alive.

【文章大意】本文讲述了作者来到中国买自行车后第一次骑车回家的感受。

56.According to the author, why are bicycles still popular in China today?

A.Because they are traditional and safe.

B.Because they are convenient and inexpensive.

C.Because they are colorful and available.

D.Because they are fast and environment friendly.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。从文章第一段中...it’s the easiest and cheapest way to travel today.可以看出作者认为骑自行车是简单方便和便宜的。

57.The author decided to buy a bicycle because he intended   .

A.to ride it for fun

B.to use it for transport

C.to experience local culture

D.to improve his riding skills

【解析】选C。细节理解题。文章第三段中提到Eager to be part of this aspect of Chinese culture, I decided to buy a bicycle.。由此可以看出作者想体验中国文化。

58.How did the author feel about his street crossing?

A.It was boring. B.It was difficult.

C.It was lively. D.It was wonderful.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。从倒数第二段中Crossing the streets was the biggest problem.以及...crossing took time, skill and a little bit of luck.可以看出作者觉得骑车过马路很危险、很困难。

59.Which of the following best describes the author’s biking experience?

A.The author enjoyed showing off his biking skills.

B.The author was annoyed by the air while riding.

C.The author was praised by the other bikers.

D.The author took great pleasure in biking.

【解析】选D。推理判断题。从文章最后一段中提到的amazing, wonderful, feel alive可看出作者感觉很好。

(2013·天津卷·C)

Poet William Stafford once said that we are defined more by the detours(绕行路)in life than by the narrow road toward goals. I like this image. But it was quite by accident that I discovered the deep meaning of his words.

For years we made the long drive from our home in Seattle to my parents’home in Boise in nine hours. We traveled the way most people do: the fastest,shortest,easiest road,especially when I was alone with four noisy, restless kids who hate confinement(限制)and have strong opinions about everything.

Road trips felt risky, so I would drive fast, stopping only when I had to. We would stick to the freeways and arrive tired.

But then Banner, our lamb was born. He was rejected by his mama days before our planned trip to Boise. I had two choices: leave Banner with my husband, or take him with me. My husband made the decision for me.

That is how I found myself on the road with four kids, a baby lamb and nothing but my everlasting optimism to see me through. We took the country roads out of necessity. We had to stop every hour, let Banner shake out his legs and feed him. The kids chased him and one another. They’d get back in the car breathless and energized, smelling fresh from the cold air.

We explored side roads, catching grasshoppers in waist-high grass. Even if we simply looked out of the car windows at baby pigs following their mother, or fish leaping out of the water, it was better than the best ride down the freeway. Here was life. And new horizons(见识).

We eventually arrived at my parents’doorstep astonishingly fresh and full of stories.

I grew brave with the trip back home and creative with my disciplining technique. On an empty section of road, everyone started quarreling. I stopped the car, ordered all kids out and told them to meet me up ahead. I parked my car half a mile away and read my book in sweet silence.

Some road trips are by necessity fast and straight. But that trip with Banner opened our eyes to a world available to anyone adventurous enough to wander around and made me realize that a detour may uncover the best part of a journey—and the best part of yourself.

【文章大意】作者通过亲身经历更深刻地理解了人生更多意义上是绕行路这句话。在人生旅途中,曲折迂回的小路有可能更精彩。

46.Why did the author use to take freeways to her parents’home?

A.It was less tiring.

B.It would be faster and safer.

C.Her kids would feel less confined.

D.She felt better with other drivers nearby.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。根据第二段第二句话可知:作者通常选择最快捷的、最短的、最好走的路回娘家。故B正确。

47.The author stopped regularly on the country roads to   .

A.relax in the fresh air

B.take a deep breath

C.take care of the lamb

D.let the kids play with Banner

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第五段第三句可知:作者停下来是为了让小羊活动一下四肢,给他喂食。由此答案应该选C。

48.What does the author discover from the trip according to Paragraph 6?

A.Freeways are where beauty hides.

B.Getting close to nature adds to the joy of life.

C.Enjoying the beauty of nature benefits one’s health.

D.One should follow side roads to watch wild animals.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。第六段主要讲述了在路上的所见所闻,表达了比走高速好的观点,而且能增长见识,这些无非说明的是接近自然增添了生活的乐趣。

49.Why did the author ask the kids to get out of the car on their way back home?

A.To give herself some time to read.

B.To order some food for them.

C.To play a game with them.

D.To let them cool down.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。倒数第二段第二、三句话提到孩子们开始吵架,所以作者才停车,让孩子们冷静下来。故选D。

50.What could be the best title for the passage?

A.Charm of the Detour

B.The Road to Bravery

C.Creativity out of Necessity

D.Road Trip and Country Life

【解析】选A。主旨大意题。文章开篇提出人生充满“detours”,接着以自身经历来加深对“detours”的理解,最后提到“detours”能让你发现旅途的美以及自身最美好的一面。故选A。

(2013·天津卷·D)

When asked about happiness, we usually think of something extraordinary, an absolute delight, which seems to get rarer the older we get.

For kids, happiness has a magical quality. Their delight at winning a race or getting a new bike is unreserved(毫无掩饰的).

In the teenage years the concept of happiness changes. Suddenly it’s conditional on such things as excitement, love and popularity. I can still recall the excitement of being invited to dance with the most attractive boy at the school party.

In adulthood the things that bring deep joy—love, marriage, birth—also bring responsibility and the risk of loss. For adults, happiness is complicated(复杂的).

My definition of happiness is“the capacity for enjoyment”. The more we can enjoy what we have, the happier we are. It’s easy to overlook the pleasure we get from the company of friends, the freedom to live where we please, and even good health.

I experienced my little moments of pleasure yesterday. First I was overjoyed when I shut the last lunch-box and had the house to myself. Then I spent an uninterrupted morning writing, which I love. When the kids and my husband came home, I enjoyed their noise after the quiet of the day.

Psychologists tell us that to be happy we need a mix of enjoyable leisure time and satisfying work. I don’t think that my grandmother, who raised 14 children, had much of either. She did have a network of close friends and family, and maybe this is what satisfied her.

We, however, with so many choices and such pressure to succeed in every area, have turned happiness into one more thing we’ve got to have. We’re so self-conscious about our“right”to it that it’s making us miserable. So we chase it and equal it with wealth and success, without noticing that the people who have those things aren’t necessarily happier.

Happiness isn’t about what happens to us—it’s about how we see what happens to us. It’s the skillful way of finding a positive for every negative. It’s not wishing for what we don’t have, but enjoying what we do possess.

【文章大意】不同年龄阶段的人对快乐幸福的定义不同,在作者看来快乐就是多看事物积极的一面,以及知足常乐,只有这样才会幸福快乐。

51.As people grow older,they   .

A.feel it harder to experience happiness

B.associate their happiness less with others

C.will take fewer risks in pursuing happiness

D.tend to believe responsibility means happiness

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第一段可知,人年龄越大,快乐幸福感越少,也就越难体验到快乐,故选A。

52.What can we learn about the author from Paragraphs 5 and 6?

A.She cares little about her own health.

B.She enjoys the freedom of traveling.

C.She is easily pleased by things in daily life.

D.She prefers getting pleasure from housework.

【解析】选C。推理判断题。第六段描述了作者感到快乐的事情,比如做完家务,独自享受安静,静静写作,享受与老公孩子在一起,从这些点不难看出作者很容易在日常生活中体验到快乐,这一点正好是第五段说的作者对快乐的理解“the capacity for enjoyment”,故选C。

53.What can be inferred from Paragraph 7?

A.Psychologists think satisfying work is key to happiness.

B.Psychologists’ opinion is well proved by Grandma’s case.

C.Grandma often found time for social gatherings.

D.Grandma’s happiness came from modest expectations of life.

【解析】选D。推理判断题。心理学家认为快乐源于有一些休闲时间和有令人满意的工作,而作者奶奶的快乐却仅仅源于家人的和睦和与朋友的友谊,因此选D。

54.People who equal happiness with wealth and success   .

A.consider pressure something blocking their way

B.stress their right to happiness too much

C.are at a loss to make correct choices

D.are more likely to be happy

【解析】选B。细节理解题。倒数第二段第二句提到“我们太在意自己对幸福权的拥有,这会让我们感到痛苦”,故选B。A,C项文章并没有提及;倒数第二段最后一句说的是把财富和成功与快乐等同的人不一定更幸福,故D项不对。

55.What can be concluded from the passage?

A.Happiness lies between the positive and the negative.

B.Each man is the master of his own fate.

C.Success leads to happiness.

D.Happy is he who is content.

【解析】选D。主旨大意题。文中作者提到My definition of happiness is“the capacity for enjoyment”,由此可见快乐是指“有享受快乐的能力”,与D表达的意思相符。A的意思是快乐处于积极与消极之间;B的意思是每个人都是自己命运的主人;C的意思是成功会带来快乐。

(2013·福建卷·A)

  When I was 12,all I wanted was a signet(图章)ring.They were the“in”thing and it seemed every girl except me had one.On my 13th birthday,my Mum gave me a signet ring with my initials(姓名首字母)carved into it.I was in heaven.

What made it even more special was that it was about the only thing that wasn’t being“replaced”.We’d been burnt out in fires that swept through our area earlier that year and had lost everything—so most of the“new”stuff(东西)we got was really just to replace what we’d lost.But not my ring.My ring was new.

Then, only one month later, I lost it.I took it off before bed and it was missing in the morning. I was sad and searched everywhere for it.But it seemed to have disappeared. Eventually, I gave up and stopped looking for it. And two years later, we sold the house and moved away.

Years passed, and a couple of moves later, I was visiting my parents’ when Mum told me that she had something for me. It wasn’t my birthday, nor was it Easter or Christmas or any other gift-giving occasion. Mum noticed my questioning look.“You’ll recognize this one,”she said,smiling.

Then she handed me a small ring box.I took it from her and opened it to find my beautiful signet ring inside.

The family who had bought our house 13 years earlier had recently decided to do some redecorations, which included replacing the carpets.When they pulled the carpet up in my old bedroom,they found the ring.As it had my initials carved into it,they realized who owned the ring.They’d had it professionally cleaned up by a jeweler before sending it to my mother.

And it still fits me.

【文章大意】文章讲述了作者的一枚意义非同寻常的戒指,不慎丢失,多年后又失而复得的故事。

56.The underlined word“in”in the first paragraph probably means“    ”.

A.fashionable B.available C.practical D.renewable

【解析】选A。词义猜测题。根据后半句“it seemed every girl except me had one”可以推知,“in thing”指的是时髦的东西,fashionable时髦的,故答案选A。available可用的;practical实际的;renewable可继续的。

57.When she got the ring back,the writer was about    .

A.13 years old B.15 years old

C.26 years old D.28 years old

【解析】选D。数字计算题。根据第一段的“On my 13th birthday,my Mum gave me a signet ring”,第三段的最后一句话“And two years later,we sold the house and moved away.”以及倒数第二段的“The family who had bought our house 13 years earlier”可以推知,作者找回戒指时28岁了,故答案选D。

58. Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage?

A.The writer’s family moved several times.

B.The writer never stopped looking for her ring.

C.The writer’s ring was cleaned up by the new house owner.

D.The writer lost her ring in the morning when she took it off.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第二段可知作者的家因失火搬过一次,而后来又把房子卖了,再次搬迁,故答案选A。根据“I gave up and stopped looking for it”排除B;根据“They’d had it professionally cleaned up by a jeweler”排除C;根据“I took it off before bed and it was missing in the morning.”排除D。

59. What would be the best title for the passage?

A.My New Ring B.Lost and Found

C.Lost and Replaced D.An Expensive Ring

【解析】选B。主旨大意题。文章讲述了作者的戒指失而复得的故事,故答案选B。A项过于片面;C项文章没有提到取代;D项文章没有提到昂贵。

(2013·北京卷·C)



Does Fame Drive You Crazy?

Although being famous might sound like a dream come true,today’s stars,feeling like zoo animals,face pressures that few of us can imagine.They are at the center of much of the world’s attention.Paparazzi(狗仔队)camp outside their homes,cameras ready.Tabloids(小报)publish thrilling stories about their personal lives.Just imagine not being able to do anything without being photographed or interrupted for a signature!

According to psychologist Christina Villarreal, celebrities- famous people-worry constantly about their public appearance.Eventually,they start to lose track of who they really are,seeing themselves the way their fans imagine them,not as the people they were before everyone knew their names.“Over time,”Villarreal says,“they feel separated and alone.”

The phenomenon of tracking celebrities has been around for ages.In the 4thcentury B.C.,painters followed Alexander the Great into battle,hoping to picture his victories for his admirers.When Charles Dickens visited America in the 19thcentury,his sold-out readings attracted thousands of fans,leading him to complain(抱怨)about his lack of privacy.Tabloids of the 1920s and 1930s ran articles about film-stars in much the same way that modern tabloids and websites do.

Being a public figure today,however,is a lot more difficult than it used to be.Superstars cannot move about without worrying about photographers with modern cameras.When they say something silly or do something ridiculous,there is always the Internet to spread the news in minutes and keep their“story”alive forever.

If fame is so troublesome, why aren’t all celebrities running away from it? The answer is there are still ways to deal with it.Some stars stay calm by surrounding themselves with trusted friends and family or by escaping to remote places away from big cities.They focus not on how famous they are but on what they love to do or whatever made them famous in the first place.

Sometimes a few celebrities can get a little justice.Still,even stars who enjoy full justice often complain about how hard their lives are.They are tired of being famous already.

【文章大意】文章讲述了名人隐私不能得到良好保护。

63.It can be learned from the passage that stars today   .

A.are often misunderstood by the public

B.can no longer have their privacy protected

C.spend too much on their public appearance

D.care little about how they have come into fame

【解析】选B。推理判断题。根据文章第一段可知名人因为狗仔队的追踪、小报关于他们私生活的报道等使得他们私生活不能受到保护,故选B。

64. What is the main idea of Paragraph 3?

A.Great heroes of the past were generally admired.

B.The problem faced by celebrities has a long history.

C.Well-known actors are usually targets of tabloids.

D.Works of popular writers often have a lot of readers.

【解析】选B。段落大意题。第三段第一句话是本段的主题句,由此判断本段主要讲述名人面临的这个问题由来已久。

65. What makes it much harder to be a celebrity today?

A. Availability of modern media.

B. Inadequate social recognition.

C. Lack of favorable chances.

D. Huge population of fans.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。由第四段的“...photographers with modern cameras.”以及“...there is always the Internet to spread the news...”可知是现代媒体使得现在的名人生活更加“艰难”。

66. What is the author’s attitude toward modern celebrity?

A. Sincere.       B. Sceptical.

C. Disapproving. D. Sympathetic.

【解析】选D。观点态度题。开始作者谈到狗仔队对于明星生活的影响,最后谈到明星们的种种无奈,字里行间透出自己对名人的同情。故答案选D。

(2013·北京卷·D)

Multitasking

People who multitask all the time may be the worst at doing two things at once, a new research suggests. The findings,based on performances and self-evaluations by about 275 college students, indicate that many people multitask not out of a desire to increase productivity, but because they are easily distracted(分心)and can’t focus on one activity. And“those people turn out to be the worst at handling different things,”said David Sanbonmatsu, a psychologist at the University of Utah.

Sanbonmatsu and his colleagues gave the students a set of tests and asked them to report how often they multitasked, how good they thought they were at it, and how sensation-seeking(寻求刺激)or impulsive(冲动)they were. They then evaluated the participants’ multitasking ability with a tricky mental task that required the students to do simple mathematical calculations while remembering a set of letters.

Not surprisingly, the scientists said, most people thought they were better than average at multitasking, and those who thought they were better at it were more likely to report using a cellphone while driving or viewing multiple kinds of media at once. But those who frequently deal with many things at the same time were found to perform the worst at the actual multitasking test. They also were more likely to admit to sensation-seeking and impulsive behavior, which connects with how easily people get bored and distracted.

“People multitask not because it’s going to lead to greater productivity,but because they’re distractible, and they get sucked into things that are not as important,”Sanbonmatsu said.

Adam Gazzaley, a researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, who was not a member of the research group, said one limitation of the study was that it couldn’t find out whether people who start out less focused toward multitasking or whether people’s recognizing and understanding abilities change as a result of multitasking.

The findings do suggest, however, why the sensation-seekers who multitask the most may enjoy risky distracted driving. “People who are multitasking are generally less sensitive to risky situations,”said Paul Atchley, another researcher not in the group.“This may partly explain why people go in for these situations even though they’re dangerous.”

【文章大意】经调查发现,同时做多项任务的人往往会出现差错,危急时刻不能做出快速的反应。

67.The research led by Sanbonmatsu indicates that people who multitask   .

A.seek high productivity constantly

B.prefer handling different things when getting bored

C.are more focused when doing many things at a time

D.have the poorest results in doing various things at the same time

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据文章第一段最后一句中的“those people turn out to be the worst at handling different things,”可知。

68.When Sanbonmatsu and his colleagues conducted their research,they   .

A.assessed the multitasking ability of the students

B.evaluated the academic achievements of the students

C.analyzed the effects of the participants’tricky mental tasks

D.measured the changes of the students’understanding ability

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第二段第二句的“They then evaluated the participants multitasking ability...”可以判断他们主要评估学生们的多任务能力。

69.According to Sanbonmatsu,people multitask because of their   .

A.limited power in calculation

B.interests in doing things differently

C.inability to concentrate on one task

D.impulsive desire to try new things

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第一段的第二句中的“...not out of a desire to increase productivity,but because they are easily distracted and can’t focus on one activity.”得知他们完成多任务并非是因为提高生产效率的欲望而是因为他们很容易分心无法将注意力集中在一件事情上,故选C。

70.From the last paragraph,we can learn that multitaskers usually   .

A. drive very skillfully

B. go in for difficult tasks

C. fail to react quickly to potential dangers

D. refuse to explain the reasons for their behavior

【解析】选C。推理判断题。由倒数第一段中“People who are multitasking are generally less sensitive to risky situations,”可知一般来说,做多任务的人对危险不太敏感,故选C。

(2013·安徽卷·D)

“People are ruder today because they are rushed and more‘time poor’than ever before,”says Patsy Rowe,“Manners have fallen off the radar(雷达).”Due to our strong attraction to electronic equipment it is a wonder more people don’t wake up each morning and greet the singing birds with a complaint(抱怨)about the noise.Here are some examples of rudeness.

Some people prefer to do almost everything over the Internet.To them,dealing with an actual human is like an evolutionary step backward.It feels very slow because humans don’t work at 4G speeds.When you have dinner with friends,you will often notice someone paying more attention to his mobile phone.We have programmed ourselves to think that every new message brings life-changing news,so taking calls and checking our texts are more important than talking to the people we are with.What is worse,some people even tend to send anonymous(匿名的)rude messages by email.

However, rudeness is never acceptable. Don’t assume it is OK to be rude if the person you’re in touch with won’t recognize you. If you have something awful to say, have the courage to face the person and say it, write a letter or email and sign it, or forget it. Upsetting people with unsigned messages is cruel and disgusting.

We shouldn’t blame technology for our shortcomings. Technology is here to help us, but we should not allow it to take over our lives. An important step is acknowledging our shortcomings. People spend a lot of time pointing out bad manners but it would be even more helpful if we’d publicly acknowledge good manners when we see them.

【文章大意】现代科技发达了,人们面对各种先进技术的同时,好的行为习惯、好的礼貌已被许多人忽略,本文向我们介绍了一些没有礼貌的例子。

68. What can be inferred from the underlined sentence in Paragraph 1?

A. People can tell good from bad behavior.

B. Radar is able to observe human behavior.

C. People care little about their behavior.

D. Radar can be used to predict human behavior.

【解析】选C。推理判断题。划线句子的意思是:礼貌已经从雷达区域跌落了。言外之意就是人们已经很少关注他们的行为礼貌,因此选C。

69.Some people are less willing to deal with humans because    .

A.they are becoming less patient

B.they are growing too independent

C.they have to handle many important messages

D.they have to follow an evolutionary step backward

【解析】选A。推理判断题。根据第二段的二、三句To them,dealing with an actual human is like an evolutionary step backward.It feels very slow because humans don’t work at 4G speeds.可知一些人不愿意与人相处是因为他们觉得人工作起来慢,就像进化史上的后退,由此可以推断他们正变得没有耐心,故选A。

70.The author thinks sending unsigned awful messages is    .

A.ridiculous B.disgusting

C.acceptable D.reasonable

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第三段的最后一句Upsetting people with unsigned messages is cruel and disgusting.可知本题选B。

71.What can we learn from the last paragraph?

A.We should applaud good behavior.

B.Technology can never be blamed.

C.We should keep pointing out mistakes.

D.Technology will take over our lives one day.

【解析】选A。推理判断题。根据最后一段的最后一句People spend a lot of time pointing out bad manners but it would be even more helpful if we’d publicly acknowledge good manners when we see them.可知人们应花费时间指出不礼貌的行为,但是如果我们当众承认好礼貌甚至会更有帮助,由此可以推断我们要为好的行为鼓掌是正确的。由最后一段的前三句可推知B、C、D三项都与文意不符。

(2013·湖北卷·A)

Some years ago, writing in my diary used to be a usual activity.I would return from school and spend the expected half hour recording the day’s events, feelings, and impressions in my little blue diary.I did not really need to express my emotions by way of words, but I gained a certain satisfaction from seeing my experiences forever recorded on paper.After all, isn’t accumulating memories a way of preserving the past?

When I was thirteen years old, I went on a long journey on foot in a great valley, well-equipped with pens, a diary, and a camera. During the trip, I was busy recording every incident, name and place I came across.I felt proud to be spending my time productively, dutifully preserving for future generations a detailed description of my travels.On my last night there, I wandered out of my tent, diary in hand. The sky was clear and lit by the glare of the moon, and the walls of the valley looked threatening behind their screen of shadows. I automatically took out my pen...

At that point, I understood that nothing I wrote could ever match or replace the few seconds I allowed myself to experience the dramatic beauty of the valley. All I remembered of the previous few days were the dull characterizations I had set down in my diary.

Now, I only write in my diary when I need to write down a special thought or feeling. I still love to record ideas and quotations that strike me in books, or observations that are particularly meaningful.I take pictures, but not very often—only of objects I find really beautiful. I’m no longer blindly satisfied with having something to remember when I grow old. I realize that life will simply pass me by if I stay behind the camera, busy preserving the present so as to live it in the future.

I don’t want to wake up one day and have nothing but a pile of pictures and notes. Maybe I won’t have as many exact representations of people and places; maybe I’ll forget certain facts, but at least the experiences will always remain inside me. I don’t live to make memories—I just live, and the memories form themselves.

【文章大意】作者原来一直认为记日记是为了记住美好的瞬间,为了一种满足感,可是后来改变了想法,她认识到,自己努力写日记或拍照片,为了留下回忆时,美好的现在已经溜走,所以努力地过好现在,美好的记忆会自然形成。

51.Before the age of thirteen,the author regarded keeping a diary as a way of   .

A.observing her school routine

B.expressing her satisfaction

C.impressing her classmates

D.preserving her history

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第一段的最后一句话After all,isn’t accumulating memories a way of preserving the past?可知作者认为积累记忆是一种保存过去的方式。故选D项。

52. What caused a change in the author’s understanding of keeping a diary?

A. A dull night on the journey.

B. The beauty of the great valley.

C. A striking quotation from a book.

D. Her concerns for future generations.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。根据第三段的第一句话At that point,I understood that nothing I wrote could ever match or replace the few seconds I allowed myself to experience the dramatic beauty of the valley可知山谷的美景让作者意识到自己记下的只是枯燥的文字,无法与欣赏眼前的美景相比。故选B项。

53. What does the author put in her diary now?

A. Notes and beautiful pictures.

B. Special thoughts and feelings.

C. Detailed accounts of daily activities.

D. Descriptions of unforgettable events.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第四段的第一句话Now,I only write in my diary when I need to write down a special thought or feeling.可知作者要记下的是特殊的思想和情感,故选B项。

54. The author comes to realize that to live a meaningful life is   .

A. to experience it

B. to live the present in the future

C. to make memories

D. to give accurate representations of it

【解析】选A。主旨大意题。通过记叙过去的记日记的习惯以及现在改变后的习惯,作者想要告诉我们一个道理:人生重要的不是记下或拍下什么来制造记忆,而是真正地去体验、享受生活,这样美好的记忆就会存在。

(2013·湖北卷·D)

The technology is great.Without it we wouldn’t have been able to put a man on the moon, explore the ocean’s depths or eat microwave sausages. Computers have revolutionized our lives and they have the power to educate and pass on knowledge. But sometimes this power can create more problems than it solves.

Every doctor has had to try their best to calm down patients who’ve come into their surgery waving an Internet print-out, convinced that they have some rare incurable disease, say, throat cancer. The truth is usually far more ordinary, though: they don’t have throat cancer, and it’s just that their throats are swollen. Being a graduate of the Internet“school”of medicine does not guarantee accurate self-health-checks.

One day Mrs.Almond came to my hospital after feeling faint at work.While I took her blood sample and tried to find out what was wrong,she said calmly,“I know what’s wrong;I’ve got throat cancer.I know there’s nothing you doctors can do about it and I’ve just got to wait until the day comes.”

As a matter of routine I ordered a chest X-ray.I looked at it and the blood results an hour later.Something wasn’t right. “Did your local doctor do an X-ray?”I asked.“Oh,I haven’t been to the doctor for years,”she replied.“I read about it on a website and the symptoms fitted,so I knew that’s what I had.”

However, some of her symptoms, like the severe cough and weight loss, didn’t fit with it—but she’d just ignored this.

I looked at the X-ray again,and more tests confirmed it wasn’t the cancer but tuberculosis(肺结核)—something that most certainly did need treating,and could be deadly.She was lucky we caught it when we did.

Mrs.Almond went pale when I explained she would have to be on treatment for the next six months to ensure that she was fully recovered.It was certainly a lesson for her.“I’m so embarrassed,”she said, shaking her head, as I explained that all the people she had come into close contact with would have to be found out and tested.She listed up to about 20,and then I went to my office to type up my notes.Unexpectedly, the computer was not working, so I had to wait until someone from the IT department came to fix it.Typical.Maybe I should have a microwave sausage while I waited?

【文章大意】人们过度迷信科技的力量,作者指出,相对于帮助人解决问题,科技会给人带来更多的麻烦。在文中作者通过例子证明自己的观点,告诫人们不要过度依赖科技。

63. Mrs.Almond talked about her illness calmly because   .

A. she thought she knew it well

B. she had purchased medicine online

C. she graduated from a medical school

D. she had been treated by local doctors

【解析】选A。推理判断题。根据第三段中Mrs.Almond说的话“I know what’s wrong;I’ve got throat cancer.I know there’s nothing you doctors can do about it and I’ve just got to wait until the day comes.”可知她自以为非常了解自己的病情。

64.It was lucky for Mrs.Almond   .

A.to have contacted many friends

B.to have recovered in a short time

C.to have her assumption confirmed

D.to have her disease identified in time

【解析】选D。细节理解题。通过在医院里的详细检查,医生确诊她得了肺结核,而且这种病也是会致命的,所以说及时发现得了这种病,她是幸运的。

65.Mrs.Almond said“I’m so embarrassed”(Para.7)because   .

A.she had distrusted her close friends

B.she had caused unnecessary trouble

C.she had to refuse the doctor’s advice

D.she had to tell the truth to the doctor

【解析】选B。推理判断题。根据后面的as I explained that all the people she had come into close contact with would have to be found out and tested.可知由于她的肺结核病有很多人也要来检查是否被传染,她感觉给别人带来了很大的麻烦而感到困窘和不安,故选B项。

66.By mentioning the breakdown of the computer,the author probably wants to prove   .

A.it’s a must to take a break at work

B.it’s vital to believe in IT professionals

C.it’s unwise to simply rely on technology

D.it’s a danger to work long hours on computers

【解析】选C。主旨大意题。在第一段作者就指出,相对于帮助人解决问题,科技会给人带来更多的麻烦。在文中作者通过例子证明自己的观点,不要过度依赖科技。

(2013·湖南卷·B)

In my living room,there is a plaque(匾)that advises me to“Bloom(开花)where you are planted.”It reminds me of Dorothy.I got to know Dorothy in the early 1980s,when I was teaching Early Childhood Development through a program with Union College in Barbourville,Kentucky.The job responsibilities required occasional visits to the classroom of each teacher in the program.Dorothy stands out in my memory as one who“bloomed”in her remote area.

Dorothy taught in a school in Harlan County,Kentucky,Appalachian Mountain area.To get to her school from the town of Harlan,I followed a road winding around the mountain.In the eight-mile journey,I crossed the same railroad track five times,giving the possibility of getting caught by the same train five times.Rather than feeling excited by this drive through the mountains,I found it depressing.The poverty level was shocking and the small shabby houses gave me the greatest feeling of hopelessness.

From the moment of my arrival at the little school,all gloom(忧郁)disappeared.Upon arriving at Dorothy’s classroom,I was greeted with smiling faces and treated like a queen.The children had been prepared to show me their latest projects.Dorothy told me with a big smile that they were serving poke greens salad and cornbread for“dinner”(lunch).In case you don’t know,poke greens are a weed-type plant that grows wild,especially on poor ground.

Dorothy never ran out of reports of exciting activities of her students.Her enthusiasm never cooled down.When it came time to sit for the testing and interviewing required to receive her Child Development Associate Certification,Dorothy was ready.She came to the assessment and passed in all areas.Afterward,she invited me to the one-and-only steak house in the area to celebrate her victory,as if she had received her Ph.D.degree.After the meal,she placed a little box containing an old pen in my hand.She said it was a family heirloom(传家宝),but to me it is a treasured symbol of appreciation and pride that cannot be matched with things.

【文章大意】本文主要通过作者在贫困地区教学的所见所闻,讲述了Dorothy经过自己的努力获得了成功的故事。

61.“Early Childhood Development”in Paragraph 1 refers to    .

A.a program directed by Dorothy

B.a course given by the author

C.an activity held by the students

D.an organization sponsored by Union College

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第一段中...when I was teaching Early Childhood Development through a program with Union College in Barbourville,Kentucky.一句可知当时作者在教授Early Childhood Development,故B项正确。a course given by the author作者教授的一门课程。

62.In the journey,the author was most disappointed at seeing    .

A.the long track B.the poor houses

C.the same train D.the winding road

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第二段中The poverty level was shocking and the small shabby houses gave me the greatest feeling of hopelessness.一句可知当看到这里的贫困程度和破烂的小房子的时候我感到绝望。

63.Upon arriving at the classroom,the author was cheered up by    .

A.a warm welcome

B.the sight of poke greens

C.Dorothy’s latest projects

D.a big dinner made for her

【解析】选A。细节理解题。作者一到达教室,所有的忧郁瞬间消失,主要是因为作者被孩子们的热情欢迎所鼓舞。

64.What can we know about Dorothy from the last paragraph?

A.She was invited to a celebration at a restaurant.

B.She got a pen as a gift from the author.

C.She passed the required assessment.

D.She received her Ph.D. degree.

【解析】选C。推理判断题。根据最后一段中She came to the assessment and passed in all areas.一句可知Dorothy在各个方面都通过了评估。

65. What does the author mainly intend to tell us?

A. Whatever you do, you must do it carefully.

B. Whoever you are, you deserve equal treatment.

C. However poor you are, you have the right to education.

D. Wherever you are, you can accomplish your achievement.

【解析】选D。主旨大意题。作者通过讲述Dorothy取得成功的经历,告诉我们:无论身处何地(贫困地区还是富裕地区),(只要努力)你都能取得成功。

(2013·湖南卷·C)

It’s such a happy-looking library,painted yellow,decorated with palm-tree stickers and sheltered from the Florida sun by its own roof.About the size of a microwave oven,it’s pedestrian-friendly,too,waiting for book lovers next to a sidewalk in Palm Beach Country Estates,along the northern boundary of Palm Beach Gardens.

It’s a library built with love.

A year ago,shortly after Janey Henriksen saw a Brian Williams report about the Little Free Library organization,a Wisconsin-based nonprofit that aims to promote literacy and build a sense of community in a neighborhood by making books freely available,she announced to her family of four,“That’s what we’re going to do for our spring break!”

Son Austin,now a 10th-grader,didn’t see the point of building a library that resembles a mailbox.But Janey insisted,and husband Peter unwillingly got to work.The 51-year-old owner of a ship supply company modified a small wooden house that he’d built years earlier for daughter Abbie’s toy horses,and made a door of glass.

After adding the library’s final touches(装点),the family hung a signboard on the front,instructing users to“take a book,return a book,”and making the Henriksen library,now one of several hundred like it nationwide and among more than 2,500 in the world,the only Little Free Library in Palm Beach County.

They stocked it with 20 or so books they’d already read,a mix of science fiction,reference titles,novels and kids’favorites.“I told them,keep in mind that you might not see it again,”said Janey,a stay-at-home mom.

Since then,the collection keeps replenishing(补充)itself,thanks to ongoing donations from borrowers.The library now gets an average of five visits a day.

The project’s best payoff,says Peter,are the thank-you notes left behind.“We had no idea in the beginning that it would be so popular.” (317 words)

【文章大意】本文主要介绍了Janey Henriksen发起建造的一所图书馆及其运营情况。

66.In what way is the library“pedestrian-friendly”?

A.It owns a yellow roof.

B.It stands near a sidewalk.

C.It protects book lovers from the sun.

D.It uses palm-tree stickers as decorations.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第一段中...waiting for book lovers next to a sidewalk in Palm Beach Country Estates...一句可知这个图书馆位于人行道旁,pedestrian-friendly方便行人的。

67.Janey got the idea to build a library from    .

A.a visit to Brian Williams

B.a spring break with her family

C.a book sent by one of her neighbors

D.a report on a Wisconsin-based organization

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第三段中A year ago,shortly after Janey Henriksen saw a Brian Williams report about the Little Free Library organization...“That’s what we’re going to do for our spring break!”可知Janey建造这座图书馆的想法源于她看到的一篇报道。

68.The library was built    .

A.by a ship supply company

B.on the basis of toy horses

C.like a mailbox

D.with glass

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第四段中Son Austin,now a 10th-grader,didn’t see the point of building a library that resembles a mailbox.But Janey insisted,and husband Peter unwillingly got to work.提到Janey坚持要求把图书馆建成邮箱形状,她的丈夫不情愿地开始了建造工作。故选C。

69.What can we infer about the signboard?

A.It was made by a user of the library.

B.It marked a final touch to the library.

C.It aimed at making the library last long.

D.It indicated the library was a family property.

【解析】选C。推理判断题。根据第五段中take a book,return a book可知悬挂的牌子上写着“借一本书,归还一本书”可推知主要目的是让图书馆更长久,不会因图书的流失而倒闭。

70.The passage tells us that the users    .

A.donate books to the library

B.get paid to collect books for the library

C.receive thank-you notes for using the library

D.visit the library over 5 times on average daily

【解析】选A。推理判断题。根据倒数第二段中...the collection keeps replenishing itself,thanks to ongoing donations from borrowers.一句可知图书馆的书籍在不断地补充,这得益于借书者的捐赠。

(2013·江西卷·A)

The light from the campfire brightened the darkness,but it could not prevent the damp cold of Dennis’s Swamp(沼泽地)creeping into their bones.It was a strange place.Martin and Tom wished that they had not accepted Jack’s dare.They liked camping,but not near this swamp.

“So,”Martin asked as they sat watching the hot coals.“How did this place get its name?”

“Are you sure you want to hear it?It’s a scary story,”warned Jack.

“Of course!”cried out Tom.“If there were anything to be scared of,you wouldn’t have chosen this place!”

“Ok,but don’t say I didn’t warn you,”said Jack,and he began his tale.

“Way back in time,a man called Dennis tried to start a farm here.He built that cottage over there to live in.In those days,the area looked quite different—it was covered with tall trees and the swamp was a crystal-clear river.After three hard years,Dennis had cleared several fields and planted crops.He was so proud of his success that he refused to listen to advice.

“‘You are clearing too much land,’warned one old man.‘The land is a living thing.It will hit back at you if you abuse it.’

‘Silly fool,’said Dennis to himself.‘If I clear more land,I can grow more crops.I’ll become wealthier.He’s just jealous!’”

“Dennis continued to chop down trees.Small animals that relied on them for food and shelter were destroyed.He was so eager to expand his farm that he did not notice the river flowing slowly towards his door.He did not notice salt seeping to the surface of the land.He did not notice swamp plants choking all the native plants.”

“What happened?”Martin asked.It was growing colder.He trembled, twisting his body closer to the fire.

“The land hit back—just as the old man warned,”Jack shrugged.“Dennis disappeared.Old folks around here believe that swamp plants moved up from the river and dragged him underwater.His body was never found.”

“What a stupid story,”laughed Tom.“Plants can’t...”Before he had finished speaking,he screamed and fainted(晕倒).The other two boys jumped up with fright,staring at Tom.Suddenly,they burst out laughing.Some green swamp ivy(常春藤)had covered Tom’s face.It was a while before Tom could appreciate the joke.

【文章大意】几个男生在去沼泽地探险的过程中,谈论沼泽地名字的由来。

56. The underlined word“dare”in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to   .

A.courage B.assistance

C.instruction D.challenge

【解析】选D。词义猜测题。从第一段中的It was a strange place.和They liked camping,but not near this swamp.可知,Martin and Tom多么希望当初没有接受Jack的“挑战”,故选D。

57. Why did Jack tell Tom and Martin the story?

A. To frighten them.

B. To satisfy their curiosity.

C. To warn them of the danger of the place.

D. To persuade them to camp in the swamp.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。从第二段中的How did this place get its name?和第四段中的Of course!可知,Martin和Tom都想知道这个名字的由来。

58. Why did Dennis ignore the warning of the old man?

A. The old man envied him.

B. The old man was foolish.

C. He was too busy to listen to others.

D. He was greedy for more crops.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。从第八段said Dennis to himself.‘If I clear more land,I can grow more crops.I’ll become wealthier.He’s just jealous!’可知,Dennis想有更多的庄稼。

59. Why did Tom scream and faint?

A. He saw Dennis’s shadow.

B. He was scared by a plant.

C. His friends played a joke on him.

D. The weather became extremely cold.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。从倒数第一段“Some green swamp ivy had covered Tom’s face.”可知,Tom被一种植物吓了一跳。

60. What lesson can we learn from the story of Dennis?

A. Grasp all, lose all.

B. No sweat, no sweet.

C. It is no use crying over spilt milk.

D. He who makes no mistakes makes nothing.

【解析】选A。主旨大意题。Jack给Tom和Martin讲的这个故事,说明了企图想得到一切,却会失去一切的道理。

【长难句分析】He was so proud of his success that he refused to listen to advice.

分析:本句中是so...that...固定句型,意为“太……以至于……”。

译文:他很骄傲自己的成功以至于拒绝听别人的建议。

(2013·江苏卷·B)

We’ve considered several ways of paying to cut in line:hiring line standers,buying tickets from scalpers(票贩子),or purchasing line-cutting privileges directly from,say,an airline or an amusement park.Each of these deals replaces the morals of the queue(waiting your turn)with the morals of the market(paying a price for faster service).

  Markets and queues—paying and waiting—are two different ways of allocating things,and each is appropriate to different activities.The morals of the queue,“First come,first served,”have an egalitarian(平等主义的)appeal.They tell us to ignore privilege,power,and deep pockets.

The principle seems right on playgrounds and at bus stops.But the morals of the queue do not govern all occasions.If I put my house up for sale,I have no duty to accept the first offer that comes along,simply because it’s the first.Selling my house and waiting for a bus are different activities,properly governed by different standards.

Sometimes standards change,and it is unclear which principle should apply.Think of the recorded message you hear,played over and over,as you wait on hold when calling your bank:“Your call will be answered in the order in which it was received.”This is essential for the morals of the queue.It’s as if the company is trying to ease our impatience with fairness.

But don’t take the recorded message too seriously.Today,some people’s calls are answered faster than others.Call center technology enables companies to“score”incoming calls and to give faster service to those that come from rich places.You might call this telephonic queue jumping.

Of course,markets and queues are not the only ways of allocating things.Some goods we distribute by merit,others by need,still others by chance.However,the tendency of markets to replace queues,and other non-market ways of allocating goods is so common in modern life that we scarcely notice it anymore.It is striking that most of the paid queue-jumping schemes we’ve considered—at airports and amusement parks,in call centers,doctors’offices,and national parks—are recent developments,scarcely imaginable three decades ago.The disappearance of the queues in these places may seem an unusual concern,but these are not the only places that markets have entered.

  【文章大意】社会生活类文章。文章主要议论分配事物的两种准则:序列准则和市场准则,序列准则讲究公平,崇尚“先到先得”,而市场准则讲究快速服务。序列准则适用于某些情况,例如在操场上或公交车站,但是此准则并不能控制所有的场合,例如在卖房子时无需遵循此准则。随后作者介绍在分配事物时这两种准则的标准已经发生了改变,而且除了这两种准则外,还有其他准则。

58.According to the author,which of the following seems governed by the principle“First come,first served”?

A. Taking buses.

B. Buying houses.

C. Flying with an airline.

D. Visiting amusement parks.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。从第三段第一句“The principle seems right on playgrounds and at bus stops.”可知答案为A。

59.The example of the recorded message in Paragraphs 4 and 5 illustrates   .

A.the necessity of patience in queuing

B.the advantage of modern technology

C.the uncertainty of allocation principle

D.the fairness of telephonic services

【解析】选C。推理判断题。根据第四段和第五段的开头中心句可知事例服务于中心句,第四段第一句明确提到“it is unclear which principle should apply.”,因此可以推断答案为C。

60.The passage is meant to   .

A.justify paying for faster services

B.discuss the morals of allocating things

C.analyze the reason for standing in line

D.criticize the behavior of queue jumping

【解析】选B。主旨大意题。根据文章的首段、尾段以及各段中心句可知本文主要讲述分配事物的准则。

(2013·广东卷A)

Imagination and fantasy can play an important role in achieving the things we fear.Children know this very well.Fred Epstein, in his book If I Make It to Five, tells a story he heard from one of his friends about Tom, a four-year-old boy with a cancer in his back bone. He came through several operations and a lot of pain by mastering his imagination.

Tom loved to pretend, and he particularly loved to play superheroes. Dr. Epstein explained that it was actually a brilliant way for his young mind to handle the terrifying and painful life he led.

The day before his third trip to the operating room, Tom was terribly afraid.“Maybe I could go as Superman,”he whispered to his mom.Hearing this,the mother hesitated for a while.She had avoided buying the expensive costume(戏装),but finally she agreed.

The next day Tom appeared as the powerful Superman, showing off through the hospital halls and coolly waving his hand to the people greeting him along the way.And Tom, with the strength of his fantasy, successfully made it through the operation.

The power of imagination need not be reserved for children only. We all have the power to use our fantasies to attempt things we never thought possible, to go through those things that seem impossible, and to achieve what we never believed we could. Just as Dr.Epstein puts it,“If you can dream it,you can do it.”

It doesn’t mean that you should dress as a superhero for your next job interview.But, next time you are tested in a way that seems impossible, imagine what it would take to overcome it. Become the person you need to become to win over your challenge and do it in your mind first. So, let your imagination run wild, and dare to dream.

【文章大意】Tom通过想象自己拥有超能力的方式让自己一次次战胜病魔的威胁,告诉我们一种可能性:当你面对不可能的事情的时候,想象你具有成功所需的能力,或许你就会成功。

26. What do we know about Tom?

A.He was seriously ill.

B.He was a dishonest boy.

C.He was crazy about magic.

D.He was Dr.Epstein’s patient.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第一段...a four-year-old boy with a cancer in his back bone.He came through several operations and a lot of pain by mastering his imagination.可知Tom得了癌症,且病情很严重。

27.What can be inferred about Tom’s mother?

A.She was a rich lady.

B.She refused Tom’s request.

C.She wanted Tom to be a superhero.

D.She wanted to get Tom through the pain.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第三段She had avoided buying the expensive costume(戏装),but finally she agreed可知起初母亲避免买如此贵的戏装,但是最终还是同意了,目的还是帮助Tom克服病魔。

28.When Tom went for the third operation,he   .

A.pretended to be painful B.acted like a superhero

C.appeared in poor spirits D.argued with his mother

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第四段The next day Tom appeared as the powerful Superman.一句可知在进行第三次手术的时候Tom打扮成超人的模样。

29.In the last paragraph,you are advised   .

A. to go through some difficult tests

B. to wake up from your wild dreams

C. to become a powerful person in your mind

D. to wear expensive clothes for job interviews

【解析】选C。细节理解题。文章最后一句let your imagination run wild,and dare to dream.作者建议读者充分发挥自己的想象力,把自己想象成能成功的人。

30. What is the purpose of the passage?

A. To tell us an interesting story.

B. To help us make right decisions.

C. To advise us to care about children.

D. To encourage us to use our imagination.

【解析】选D。主旨大意题。本文通过Tom的故事,告诉我们一种可能性:当你面对不可能的事情的时候,想象你有那些能成功的人的能力,或许你就会成功。

(2013·广东卷·B)

Some people think that success is only for those with talent or those who grow up in the right family, and others believe that success mostly comes down to luck.I’m not going to say luck, talent, and circumstances don’t come into play because they do.Some people are born into the right family while others are born with great intelligence, and that’s just the reality of how life is.

However, to succeed in life, one first needs to set a goal and then gradually make it more practical. And, in addition to that, in order to get really good at something,one needs to spend at least 10,000 hours studying and practising.To become great at certain things, it’ll require even more time,time that most people won’t put in.

This is a big reason why many successful people advise you to do something you love.If you don’t enjoy what you do,it is going to feel like unbearable pain and will likely make you quit well before you ever become good at it.

When you see people exhibiting some great skills or having achieved great success, you know that they have put in a huge part of their life to get there at a huge cost.It’s sometimes easy to think they got lucky or they were born with some rare talent,but thinking that way does you no good,and there’s a huge chance that you’re wrong anyway.

Whatever you do, if you want to become great at it, you need to work day in and day out, almost to the point of addiction, and over a long period of time. If you’re not willing to put in the time and work, don’t expect to receive any rewards. Consistent, hard work won’t guarantee you the level of success you may want, but it will guarantee that you will become really good at whatever it is you put all that work into.

【文章大意】本文主要讲述了成功的秘诀。成功不仅仅在于运气与天生才华,而在于真心地投入到你所做的事情中去,即使你不会成功,你也会精通于你所从事的事情。

31.Paragraph 1 mainly talks about   .

A.the reasons for success

B.the meaning of success

C.the standards of success

D.the importance of success

【解析】选A。主旨大意题。第一段主要介绍了观点不同的人对成功的原因的理解,引出后文作者的观点。

32.In Paragraph 2,the underlined wordthatrefers to   .

A.being good at something B.setting a practical goal

C.putting in more time D.succeeding in life

【解析】选B。词义猜测题。that代指上文中one first needs to set a goal and then gradually make it more practical.

33.Successful people suggest doing what one loves because   .

A.work makes one feel pain

B.one tends to enjoy his work

C.one gives up his work easily

D.it takes a lot of time to succeed

【解析】选B。推理判断题。根据第三段If you don’t enjoy what you do,it is going to feel like unbearable pain and will likely make you quit...一句可知如果你不喜欢你所做的事情,它就会变成无法忍受的痛苦,并会让你退出。反之,要想成功,你就要喜欢你所做的事情。

34. What can we infer from Paragraph 4?

A. Successful people like to show their great skills.

B. People sometimes succeed without luck or talent.

C. People need to achieve success at the cost of life.

D. It helps to think that luck or talent leads to success.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。根据第四段最后一句there’s a huge chance that you’re wrong anyway.可知你的理解很可能是错误的,而这些人的成功并不是因为其幸运或有才华。

35. What is the main theme of the passage?

A. Having a goal is vital to success.

B. Being good is different from being great.

C. One cannot succeed without time and practice.

D. Luck, talent and family help to achieve success.

【解析】选C。主旨大意题。本文主要介绍了成功的秘诀。成功不仅仅在于运气与天生才华,而且在于真心地投入到你所做的事情中去,即使你不会成功,你也会精通于你所从事的事情。

(2013·广东卷·C)

One day, when I was working as a psychologist in England, an adolescent boy showed up in my office.It was David. He kept walking up and down restlessly, his face pale,and his hands shaking slightly.His head teacher had referred him to me.“This boy has lost his family,”he wrote. “He is understandably very sad and refuses to talk to others, and I’m very worried about him.Can you help?”

I looked at David and showed him to a chair.How could I help him?There are problems psychology doesn’t have the answer to,and which no words can describe.Sometimes the best thing one can do is to listen openly and sympathetically.

The first two times we met, David didn’t say a word.He sat there, only looking up to look at the children’s drawings on the wall behind me.I suggested we play a game of chess.He nodded.After that he played chess with me every Wednesday afternoon—in complete silence and without looking at me.It’s not easy to cheat in chess, but I admit I made sure David won once or twice.

Usually, he arrived earlier than agreed, took the chess board and pieces from the shelf and began setting them up before I even got a chance to sit down.It seemed as if he enjoyed my company.But why did he never look at me?

“Perhaps he simply needs someone to share his pain with,”I thought. “Perhaps he senses that I respect his suffering.”Some months later, when we were playing chess, he looked up at me suddenly.

“It’s your turn,”he said.

After that day, David started talking. He got friends in school and joined a bicycle club.He wrote to me a few times, about his biking with some friends, and about his plan to get into university. Now he had really started to live his own life.

Maybe I gave David something. But I also learned that one—without any words—can reach out to another person. All it takes is a hug, a shoulder to cry on, a friendly touch, and an ear that listens.

【文章大意】本篇为记叙文,描述了作者受一位教师所托,帮助一位失去家人的孩子David,作者通过下象棋渐渐让David一步步敞开心扉,最后成功地融入了学校生活中。

36.When he first met the author,David    .

A.felt a little excited

B.walked energetically

C.looked a little nervous

D.showed up with his teacher

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第一段He kept walking up and down restlessly,his face pale,and his hands shaking slightly.可知David不安地来回走动着,脸色苍白,手轻微抖动着。由此判断他有些紧张不安。

37.As a psychologist,the author    .

A.was ready to listen to David

B.was skeptical about psychology

C.was able to describe David’s problem

D.was sure of handling David’s problem

【解析】选A。细节理解题。第二段最后一句Sometimes the best thing one can do is to listen openly and sympathetically.讲到最好的方法是倾听,可知作者已经做好了倾听的准备。

38.David enjoyed being with the author because he   .

A.wanted to ask the author for advice

B.needed to share sorrow with the author

C.liked the children’s drawings in the office

D.beat the author many times in the chess game

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第五段Perhaps he simply needs someone to share his pain with...一句可知David需要某个人来分担自己的痛苦。

39. What can be inferred about David?

A. He recovered after months of treatment.

B. He liked biking before he lost his family.

C. He went into university soon after starting to talk.

D. He got friends in school before he met the author.

【解析】选A。推理判断题。根据文章“Some months later,when we were playing chess,he looked up at me suddenly.“It’s your turn,”he said.After that day,David started talking.He got friends in school and joined a bicycle club.”可知在治疗几个月后,David突然开口说话了,并在之后的日子中回归了正常的学习生活,因此选A。

40. What made David change?

A. His teacher’s help.

B. The author’s friendship.

C. His exchange of letters with the author.

D. The author’s silent communication with him.

【解析】选D。推理判断题。从全文可推断出作者并未与David直接交流,而是默默地通过下象棋的方式使David敞开心扉,故选D。干扰项为B,错误在于文章并未强调作者与David之间建立起了友谊,而是一直在强调两人无声的沟通。

(2013·新课标全国卷Ⅰ·A)

  Some people will do just about anything to save money.And I am one of them.Take my family’s last vacation.It was my six-year-old son’s winter break from school, and we were heading home from Fort Lauderdale after a weeklong trip.The flight was overbooked,and Delta,the airline,offered us $400 per person in credits to give up our seats and leave the next day.I had meetings in New York,so I had to get back.But that didn’t mean my husband and my son couldn’t stay.I took my nine-month-old and took off for home.

  The next day,my husband and son were offered more credits to take an even later flight.Yes,I encouraged—okay,ordered—them to wait it out at the airport to“earn”more Delta Dollars.Our total take:$1,600.Not bad,huh?

  Now some people may think I’m a bad mother and not such a great wife either.But as a big-time bargain hunter, I know the value of a dollar.And these days, a good deal is something few of us can afford to pass up.

  I’ve made a living looking for the best deals and exposing(揭露)the worst tricks.I have been the consumer reporter of NBC’sTodayshow for over a decade.I have written a couple of books including one titledTricks of the Trade:A Consumer Survival Guide.And I really do what I believe in.

  I tell you this because there is no shame in getting your money’s worth.I’m also tightfisted when it comes to shoes,clothes for my children,and expensive restaurants.But I wouldn’t hesitate to spend on a good haircut.It keeps its shape longer,and it’s the first thing people notice.And I will also spend on a classic piece of furniture.Quality lasts.

【文章大意】作者讲述了自己是一个不惜一切存钱的人,在一些家庭开支方面,她很节省,但是在一些方面她也追求高质量。

56. Why did Delta give the author’s family credits?

A.They took a later flight.

B.They had early bookings.

C.Their flight had been delayed.

D.Their flight had been cancelled.

【解析】选A。推理判断题。根据第一段的The flight was overbooked,and Delta,the airline,offered us $400 per person in credits to give up our seats and leave the next day.可知,是因为预订这次航班的人太多,所以Delta航空公司给我们钱让我们第二天离开。由此可知选A。

57. What can we learn about the author?

A.She rarely misses a good deal.

B.She seldom makes a compromise.

C.She is very strict with her children

D.She is interested in cheap products.

【解析】选A。推理判断题。根据第三段的as a big-time bargain hunter可知,作者追求划算的交易,所以一般她不会错过这样的事情。故选A。

58. What does the author do?

A.She’s a teacher.

B.She’s a housewife.

C.She’s a media person.

D.She’s a businesswoman.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第四段的I have been the consumer reporter of NBC’sTodayshow for over a decade.可知,作者是一名记者。故选C。

59. What does the author want to tell us?

A. How to expose bad tricks.

B. How to reserve airline seats.

C. How to spend money wisely.

D. How to make a business deal.

【解析】选C。主旨大意题。作者通过讲述自己的经历,告诉我们要抓住机会存钱,但在有些方面也要敢花钱,这说明我们要明智地消费。故选C。

(2013·新课标全国卷Ⅰ·C)

  It happened to me recently.I was telling someone how much I had enjoyed reading Barack Obama’sDreams From My Fatherand how it had changed my views of our President.A friend I was talking to agreed with me that it was,in his words,“a brilliantly(精彩地)written book”.However,he then went on to talk about Mr Obama in a way which suggested he had no idea of his background at all.I sensed that I was talking to a book liar.

  And it seems that my friend is not the only one.Approximately two thirds of people have lied about reading a book which they haven’t.In the World Book Day’s“Report on Guilty Secrets”,Dreams From My Fatheris at number 9.The report lists ten books,and various authors,which people have lied about reading,and as I’m not one to lie too often(I’d hate to be caught out),I’ll admit here and now that I haven’t read the entire top ten.But I am pleased to say that,unlike 42 percent of people,I have read the book at number one,George Orwell’s1984.I think it’s really brilliant.

  The World Book Day report also has some other interesting information in it.It says that many people lie about having read Jane Austen,Charles Dickens,Fyodor Dostoevsky(I haven’t read him,but haven’t lied about it either)and Herman Melville.

  Asked why they lied,the most common reason was to“impress”someone they were speaking to.This could be tricky if the conversation became more in-depth!

  But when asked which authors they actually enjoy, people named J.K.Rowling, John Grisham, Sophie Kinsella (ah, the big sellers, in other words). Forty-two percent of people asked admitted they turned to the back of the book to read the end before finishing the story (I’ll come clean:I do this and am astonished that 58 percent said they had never done so).

【文章大意】作者主要阐明了自己对一些人的看法,那就是有些人没有读过一些名著也不了解一些著名的作家,却撒谎说他们读过这些名著也读过这些著名的作家的信息,但也有些像作者这样从来不撒谎的人。

64. How did the author find his friend a book liar?

A. By judging his manner of speaking.

B. By looking into his background.

C. By mentioning a famous name.

D. By discussing the book itself.

【解析】选D。推理判断题。根据第一段的内容可知,作者的朋友说他读过奥巴马的Dreams From My Father,但是他却以一种不了解奥巴马的背景的方式谈论奥巴马,据此作者判断出他撒谎了。故选D。

65.Which of the following is a“guilty secret”according to the World Book Day report?

A. Charles Dickens is very low on the top-ten list.

B. 42% of people pretended to have read1984.

C. The author admitted having read 9 books.

D. Dreams From My Fatheris hardly read.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。根据第二段的内容可知,“Report on Guilty Secrets”揭露了三分之二的人撒谎说他们读过一些没有读过的书,其中42%的人撒谎说他们读过George Orwell的1984。由此可知选B。

66. By lying about reading,a person hopes to    .

A. control the conversation

B. appear knowledgeable

C. learn about the book

D. make more friends

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据第四段的内容可知,撒谎说他们读过一些名著,想给人留下印象,好像自己知识渊博。故选B。

67. What is the author’s attitude to 58% of readers?

A. Favorable. B. Uncaring. C. Doubtful. D. Friendly.

【解析】选C。推理判断题。文章最后一句I do this and am astonished that 58 percent said they had never done so中的astonished(吃惊的)表明作者不相信58%的人说的话。故选C。

(2013·新课标全国卷Ⅱ·A) (2013·大纲版全国卷·A)

  Doctors are known to be terrible pilots.They don’t listen because they already know it all.I was lucky:I became a pilot in 1970,almost ten years before I graduated from medical school.I didn’t realize then,but becoming a pilot makes me a better surgeon.I loved flying.As I flew bigger,faster planes,and in worse weather,I learned about crew resource management(机组资源管理),or CRM,a new idea to make flying safer.It means that crew members should listen and speak up for a good result,regardless of positions.

  I first read about CRM in 1980.Not long after that,an attending doctor and I were flying in bad weather.The controller had us turn too late to get our landing ready.The attending doctor was flying;I was safety pilot.He was so busy because of the bad turn,he had forgotten to put the landing gear(起落架)down.He was a better pilot—and my boss—so it felt unusual to speak up.But I had to:Our lives were in danger.I put aside my uneasiness and said,“We need to put the landing gear down now!”That was my first real lesson in the power of CRM, and I’ve used it in the operating room ever since.

  CRM requires that the pilot/surgeon encourage others to speak up.It further requires that when opinions are from the opposite,the doctor doesn’t overreact,which might prevent fellow doctors from voicing opinions again.So when I’m in the operating room,I ask for ideas and help from others.Sometimes they’re not willing to speak up.But I hope that if I continue to encourage them,someday someone will keep me from“landing gear up”.

【文章大意】作者通过自己做飞行员的经历告诉我们在必要的时候要勇于发表自己的观点,尤其是医生和飞行员,这样才能避免事故。

56. What does the author say about doctors in general?

A. They like flying by themselves.

B. They are unwilling to take advice.

C. They pretend to be good pilots.

D. They are quick learners of CRM.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。根据文章第一段第一、二句可知,通常,医生不愿意听他人的建议。故选B。

57.The author deepened his understanding of the power of CRM when    .

A.he saved the plane by speaking up

B.he was in charge of a flying task

C.his boss landed the plane too late

D.his boss operated on a patient

【解析】选A。推理判断题。第一段告诉我们作者了解了CRM;在第二段中,作者描述了自己的一次飞行经历,他大胆说出自己的想法,避免了一次飞机失事,通过这件事他对CRM有了更深刻的认识。故选A。

58.In the last paragraph“landing gear up”probably means    .

A.following flying requirements

B.overreacting to different opinions

C.listening to what fellow doctors say

D.making a mistake that may cost lives

【解析】选D。词义猜测题。根据第二段可知,飞机在着陆时,要放下起落架(put the landing gear down),否则就会出事故。由此可知,此处的landing gear up指起落架收起,表示无法正常着陆,这样就会出事故。故选D。

59.Which of the following can be the best title for the text?

A.CRM:A New Way to Make Flying Safe

B.Flying Makes Me a Better Doctor

C.The Making of a Good Pilot

D.A Pilot-Turned Doctor

【解析】选B。主旨大意题。作者在第二段中讲述了他在一起飞行事件中的经历和从中得到的教训,即不论职位高低,在必要的时候要勇于发表自己的观点。作者将这一经验应用到手术室中,在手术室中咨询他人的意见并鼓励他人发表意见,从而使他成为一个更好的医生,故选B项。


七、环境保护类


(2013·大纲版全国卷·E)

  The oldest and most common source(来源)of renewable energy known to man,biomass is one of the most important forms of energy production in the United States and elsewhere.Since such a wide variety of biomass materials is everywhere—from trees and grasses to agricultural and city-life wastes—biomass promises to play a continuing role in providing power and heat for millions of people around the world.

  According to the Union of Concerned Scientists(UCS),biomass is a kind of renewable energy source that produces no carbon dioxide(二氧化碳),because the energy it contains comes from the sun.When plant matter is burned,it gives off the sun’s energy.In this way,biomass serves as a sort of natural battery(电池)for storing the sun’s energy.As long as biomass is produced continuously—with only as much grown as is used—the“battery”lasts forever.

  According to the Energy Information Administration, biomass has been one of the leading renewable energy sources in the United States for several years running through 2007, making up between 0.5 and 0.9 percent of the nation’s total electricity supply.In 2008—although the numbers aren’t all in yet—wind power probably took over first place because of the rapid development of wind farms across the country.

  Producing power from biomass helps reduce some 11 million tons of carbon dioxide each year.Some homeowners also try to make their own heat by using biomass materials.Such practice may save homeowners’money, but it also produces a lot of pollution. So, the best way is to encourage power plants to use it.

【文章大意】本文主要介绍了biomass(生物能)将为世界上成千上万的人们提供能源和热量。

72.Why is biomass considered as“a sort of natural battery”?

A.It burns merely plant matter.

B.It keeps producing electricity.

C.It stores the energy from the sun.

D.It produces zero carbon dioxide.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第二段的biomass serves as a sort of natural battery for storing the sun’s energy可知,biomass起到一种天然电池的作用,是因为它存储了太阳的能量。故选C。

73.We learn from the text that in 2008    .

A.wind power would be the leader of renewable energy

B.there was a rapid growth of electricity production

C.biomass might become the main energy source

D.0.5 ~0.9% of power supply came from biomass

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第三段的最后一句可知,在2008年,风能有可能在可再生能源的使用中位居榜首。故选A。

74. Why does the author encourage power plants to use biomass?

A. To prevent the waste of energy.

B. To increase production safety.

C. To reduce pollution.

D. To save money.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据最后一段可知使用生物能每年可以减少11 000 000吨的二氧化碳,如果家庭使用,虽然会节约钱,但会造成污染,所以作者鼓励发电厂使用生物能。由此可知选C。

75. Where does the text probably come from?

A. A research plan. B. A science magazine.

C. A book review. D. A business report.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。这篇文章向读者介绍了生物能这种能源,所以本文很可能选自科学杂志。故选B。

(2013·安徽卷·B)

Using too much water or throwing rubbish into our rivers are clear ways that humans can put our water supply in danger,but we also affect our water supply in less obvious ways.You may wonder how paving(铺砌)a road can lead to less useable fresh water.A major part of the water we use every day is groundwater.Groundwater does not come from lakes or rivers.It comes from underground.The more roads and parking lots we pave,the less water can flow into the ground to become groundwater.

Human activity is not responsible for all water shortages(短缺).Drier climates are of course more likely to have droughts(干旱)than areas with more rainfall,but in any case,good management can help to make sure there is enough water to meet our basic needs.

Thinking about the way we use water every day can make a big difference,too.In the United States,a family of four can use 1.5 tons of water a day!This shows how much we depend on water to live,but there’s a lot we can do to lower the number.

You can take steps to save water in your home.To start with,use the same glass for your drinking water all day.Wash it only once a day.Run your dishwasher(洗碗机)only when it is full.Help your parents fix any leaks in your home.You can even help to keep our water supply clean by recycling batteries instead of throwing them away.

【文章大意】本文主要讲人类的各种活动影响了水资源的供应,为此还特别给出了在家里节省水资源的方法。

60.Which of the following is most likely to lead to less groundwater?

A.Using river water.

B.Throwing batteries away.

C.Paving parking lots.

D.Throwing rubbish into lakes.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第一段最后一句The more roads and parking lots we pave,the less water can flow into the ground to become groundwater.可知我们铺的路和停车场越多,就有越少的水流进地下变成地下水,因此选C。

61.What can be inferred from the text?

A.All water shortages are due to human behavior.

B.It takes a lot of effort to meet our water needs.

C.There is much we can do to reduce family size.

D.The average family in America makes proper use of water.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。根据最后一段可以推断出要想满足我们对水的需要就要付出很多的努力,故B项是正确的。根据第二段第一句Human activity is not responsible for all water shortages.可知A项表述是不正确的;C项在文中未提到;根据第三段可知D项表述也是错误。

62.The last paragraph is intended to    .

A.show us how to fix leaks at home

B.tell us how to run a dishwasher

C.prove what drinking glass is best for us

D.suggest what we do to save water at home

【解析】选D。推理判断题。最后一段的第一句是中心句,其目的是告诉我们在家里如何节约用水。

63.The text is mainly about    .

A.why paving roads reduces our water

B.how much we depend on water to live

C.why droughts occur more in dry climates

D.how human activity affects our water supply

【解析】选D。主旨大意题。第一段讲人们铺路和建停车场造成了地下水短缺;第二段讲人类的活动不是要为所有的水资源短缺负责,但好的管理能够确保满足我们对水的基本需要;第三段讲我们用水的方式也会对水资源有影响;第四段讲在家里节省水资源的方法。纵观整篇文章可知人类活动影响水资源供应,故选D。

(2013·辽宁卷·B)

Going green seems to be a fad(时尚)for a lot of people these days. Whether that is good or bad, we can’t really say, but for the two of us, going green is not a fad but a lifestyle.

On April 22, 2011, we decided to go green every single day for an entire year. This meant doing 365 different green things, and it also meant challenging ourselves to go green beyond the easy things. Rather than recycle and reduce our energy, we had to think of 365 different green things to do and this was no easy task.

With the idea of going green every single day for a year, Our Green Year started. My wife and I decided to educate people about how they could go green in their lives and hoped we could show people all the green things that could be done to help the environment. We wanted to push the message that every little bit helps.

Over the course of Our Green Year, we completely changed our lifestyles. We now shop at organic(有机的)stores. We consume less meat, choosing green food. We have greatly reduced our buying we don’t need. We have given away half of what we owned through websites. Our home is kept clean by vinegar and lemon juice, with no chemical cleaners. We make our own butter, enjoying the smell of home-made fresh bread. In our home office anyone caught doing something ungreen might be punished.

Our minds have been changed by Our Green Year. We are grateful for the chance to have been able to go green and educate others. We believe that we do have the power to change things and help our planet.

【文章大意】本文介绍了作者在一年中崇尚环保,过绿色环保生活的经历。

60.What might be the best title for the passage?

A.Going Green

B.Protecting the Planet

C.Keeping Open-Minded

D.Celebrating Our Green Year

【解析】选A。主旨大意题。从文章的第一段可以看出本文主要介绍了绿色生活的经历。

61.It was difficult for the couple to live a green life for the whole year because   .

A.they were expected to follow the green fad

B.they didn’t know how to educate other people

C.they were unwilling to reduce their energy

D.they needed to perform unusual green tasks

【解析】选D。细节理解题。从文章的第二段可以看出过环保生活对于作者夫妇是个挑战,他们要做的事情也很多。

62.What did the couple do over the course of Our Green Year?

A.They tried to get out of their ungreen habits.

B.They ignored others’ ungreen behavior.

C.They chose better chemical cleaners.

D.They sold their home-made food.

【解析】选A。细节理解题。从文章的倒数第二段中...we completely changed our lifestyles.以及其后的介绍可知他们改变了以前的不环保的生活习惯。

63.What can we infer from the last paragraph?

A.The government will give support to the green project.

B.The couple may continue their project in the future.

C.Some people disagree with the couple’s green ideas.

D.Our Green Year is becoming a national campaign.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。从文章最后一段中We are grateful for the chance to have been able to go green and educate others.可以看出作者一家从这次活动中受益良多,有可能会继续下去。

(2013·天津卷·B)

Last night’s meteor(流星)shower left many people in the community dissatisfied and demanding answers.According to Gabe Rothschild, Emerald Valley’s mayor, people gathered in the suburbs of the city, carrying heavy telescopes, expecting to watch the brightly burning meteors passing through the sky.What they found instead was a sky so brightened by the city’s lights that it darkened the light of the meteors passing overhead.

“My family was so frustrated, ”admitted town resident Duane Cosby.“We wanted to make this an unforgettable family outing, but it turned out to be a huge disappointment.”

Astronomers—scientists who study stars and planets—have been complaining about this problem for decades.They say that light pollution prevents them from seeing objects in the sky that they could see quite easily in the past.They call on people and the government to take measures to fight against it.

There is yet a population besides professional and amateur star observers that suffers even more from light pollution.This population consists of birds, bats, frogs, snakes, etc.For example, outdoor lighting severely affects migrating(迁徙的)birds.According to the International Dark-Sky Association.“100 million birds a year throughout North America die in crashes with lighted buildings and towers.”

Countless more animal casualties(伤亡)result from the use of artificial lighting.Clearly, people enjoy the benefits of lighting their evenings, but some scientists think it can be harmful for humans, too.They worry that exposure to light while sleeping can increase a person’s chances of getting cancer.

Emerald Valley is only one community that is becoming aware of the negative effects of light pollution.For years, Flagstaff, Arizona, has enforced lighting regulations in its city in order to assist astronomers at the Lowell Observatory.Similar efforts have been made worldwide, and a movement is underway to remind us to turn off lights when we are not using them, so that other creatures can share the night.

【文章大意】本文通过人们抱怨因人类灯光而看不清楚流星这件事,引出光污染这个话题,后面从多个方面论述了光污染的危害,并呼吁人们注意这个问题。

41.It happened last night that   .

A.the city’s lights affected the meteor watching

B.the meteors flew past before being noticed

C.the city light show attracted many people

D.the meteor watching ended up a social outing

【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第一段最后一句可知,因为城市的灯光太亮,使得流星划过天空时人们看得不是很清晰。

42. What do the astronomers complain about?

A.Meteor showers occur less often than before.

B.Their observation equipment is in poor repair.

C.Light pollution has remained unsolved for years.

D.Their eyesight is falling due to artificial lighting.

【解析】选C。推理判断题。根据第三段第一句可知,天文学家抱怨这个问题很多年了,可以推知这个问题存在多年未曾解决,故选C。其余选项说法与文章明显不符。

43. What is the author concerned about according to Paragraph 4?

A.Birds may take other migration paths.

B.Animals’living habits may change suddenly.

C.Varieties of animals will become sharply reduced.

D.Animals’survival is threatened by outdoor lighting.

【解析】选D。推理判断题。本段提到一些光污染影响了鸟、蝙蝠、青蛙和蛇等动物,并以迁徙的鸟类为例作出了说明,所以应该选D。

44.Lighting regulations in Flagstaff,Arizona are put into effect to   .

A.lessen the chance of getting cancer

B.create an ideal observation condition

C.ensure citizens a good sleep at night

D.enable all creatures to live in harmony

【解析】选B。推理判断题。最后一段第二句提到灯光管理规定的实施旨在帮助天文学家,与B项相符,故选B。

45. What message does the author most want to give us?

A.Saving wildlife is saving ourselves.

B.Great efforts should be made to save energy.

C.Human activities should be environmentally friendly.

D.New equipment should be introduced for space study.

【解析】选C。主旨大意题。文章主要讲的是光污染的危害以及提醒人们注意这个问题,所以这是与C项提到的人类活动应该更环保是一致的,故选C。

(2013·江西卷·D)

One might expect that the ever-growing demands of the tourist trade would bring nothing but good for the countries that receive the holiday-makers.Indeed,a rosy picture is painted for the long-term future of the holiday industry.Every month sees the building of a new hotel somewhere.And every month another rock-bound Pacific island is advertised as the“last paradise(天堂)on earth”.

However,the scale and speed of this growth seem set to destroy the very things tourists want to enjoy.In those countries where there was a rush to make quick money out of sea-side holidays,over-crowded beaches and the concrete jungles of endless hotels have begun to lose their appeal.

Those countries with little experience of tourism can suffer most.In recent years,Nepal set out to attract foreign visitors to fund developments in health and education.Its forests,full of wildlife and rare flowers,were offered to tourists as one more untouched paradise.In fact,the nature all too soon felt the effects of thousands of holiday-makers traveling through the forest land.Ancient tracks became major routes for the walkers,with the consequent exploitation of precious trees and plants.

Not only can the environment of a country suffer from the sudden growth of tourism.The people as well rapidly feel its effects.Farmland makes way for hotels, roads and airports; the old way of life goes.The one-time farmer is now the servant of some multi-national organization;he is no longer his own master.Once it was his back that bore the pain;now it is his smile that is exploited. No doubt he wonders whether he wasn’t happier in his village working his own land.

Thankfully, the tourist industry is waking up to the responsibilities it has towards those countries that receive its customers.The protection of wildlife and the creation of national parks go hand in hand with tourist development and in fact obtain financial support from tourist companies. At the same time, tourists are being encouraged to respect not only the countryside they visit but also its people.

The way tourism is handled in the next ten years will decide its fate and that of the countries we all want to visit.Their needs and problems are more important than those of the tourist companies.Increased understanding in planning world-wide tourism can preserve the market for these companies.If not, in a few years’time the very things that attract tourists now may well have been destroyed.

【文章大意】本文讲述了旅游业所带来的影响。

71. What does the author indicate in the last sentence of Paragraph 1?

A. The Pacific island is a paradise.

B. The Pacific island is worth visiting.

C. The advertisement is not convincing.

D. The advertisement is not impressive.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。第一段中的Every month sees the building of a new hotel somewhere.And every month another rock-bound Pacific island is advertised as the“last paradise on earth”说明了“广告的不真实”,故选C。

72. The example of Nepal is used to suggest   .

A. its natural resources are untouched

B. its forests are exploited for farmland

C. it develops well in health and education

D. it suffers from the heavy flow of tourists

【解析】选D。推理判断题。由第三段的“In fact,the nature all too soon felt the effects of thousands of holiday-makers traveling through the forest land.”一句,说明“旅游地人满为患”。

73. What can we learn about the farmers from Paragraph 4?

A. They are happy to work their own lands.

B. They have to please the tourists for a living.

C. They have to struggle for their independence.

D. They are proud of working in multi-national organizations.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。从第四段整段内容,尤其是“now it is his smile that is exploited”,说明农民为了生活必须用微笑取悦旅游者。

74. Which of the following determines the future of tourism?

A. The number of tourists.

B. The improvement of services.

C. The promotion of new products.

D. The management of tourism.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。最后一段开头的“The way tourism is handled in the next ten years will decide its fate and that of the countries we all want to visit.”提到了以后十年旅游业的经营方式将决定它的命运。所以选D。

75. The author’s attitude towards the development of the tourist industry is   .

A. optimistic B. doubtful

C. objective D. negative

【解析】选C。观点态度题。整篇文章是说旅游带给了人们积极和消极的东西,所以说是客观的评价。

八、文学艺术类


(2013·江苏卷·D)

Mark Twain has been called the inventor of the American novel.And he surely deserves additional praise: the man who popularized the clever literary attack on racism.

I say clever because anti-slavery fiction had been the important part of the literature in the years before the Civil War.H.B.Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin is only the most famous example.These early stories dealt directly with slavery.With minor exceptions, Twain planted his attacks on slavery and prejudice into tales that were on the surface about something else entirely.He drew his readers into the argument by drawing them into the story.

Again and again,in the postwar years,Twain seemed forced to deal with the challenge of race.Consider the most controversial,at least today,of Twain’s novels,Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.Only a few books have been kicked off the shelves as often as Huckleberry Finn,Twain’s most widely read tale.Once upon a time,people hated the book because it struck them as rude.Twain himself wrote that those who banned the book considered the novel“trash and suitable only for the slums(贫民窟).”More recently the book has been attacked because of the character Jim,the escaped slave,and many occurrences of the word nigger.(The term Nigger Jim,for which the novel is often severely criticized,never appears in it.)

But the attacks were and are silly—and miss the point.The novel is strongly anti-slavery.Jim’s search through the slave states for the family from whom he has been forcibly parted is heroic.As J.Chadwick has pointed out,the character of Jim was a first in American fiction—a recognition that the slave had two personalities,“the voice of survival within a white slave culture and the voice of the individual:Jim,the father and the man.”

There is much more.Twain’s mystery novel Pudd’n-head Wilson stood as a challenge to the racial beliefs of even many of the liberals of his day.Written at a time when the accepted wisdom held Negroes to be inferior(低等的)to whites,especially in intelligence,Twain’s tale centered in part around two babies switched at birth.A slave gave birth to her master’s baby and,for fear that the child should be sold South,switched him for the master’s baby by his wife.The slave’s light-skinned child was taken to be white and grew up with both the attitudes and the education of the slave-holding class.The master’s wife’s baby was taken for black and grew up with the attitudes and intonations of the slave.

The point was difficult to miss:nurture(养育),not nature,was the key to social status.The features of the black man that provided the stuff of prejudice—manner of speech,for example—were,to Twain,indicative of nothing other than the conditioning that slavery forced on its victims.

Twain’s racial tone was not perfect.One is left uneasy,for example,by the lengthy passage in his autobiography(自传)about how much he loved what were called“nigger shows”in his youth—mostly with white men performing in black-face—and his delight in getting his mother to laugh at them.Yet there is no reason to think Twain saw the shows as representing reality.His frequent attacks on slavery and prejudice suggest his keen awareness that they did not.

Was Twain a racist?Asking the question in the 21stcentury is as wise as asking the same of Lincoln.If we read the words and attitudes of the past through the“wisdom”of the considered moral judgments of the present,we will find nothing but error.Lincoln,who believed the black man the inferior of the white,fought and won a war to free him.And Twain,raised in a slave state,briefly a soldier,and inventor of Jim,may have done more to anger the nation over racial injustice and awaken its collective conscience than any other novelist in the past century.

  【文章大意】文学艺术类文章。马克·吐温是美国小说的创始人,在他的作品中智慧地体现出反对种族歧视的观点。

65. How do Twain’s novels on slavery differ from Stowe’s?

A. Twain was more willing to deal with racism.

B. Twain’s attack on racism was much less open.

C. Twain’s themes seemed to agree with plots.

D. Twain was openly concerned with racism.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。文章第二段提到斯托夫人的小说直接指向奴隶制,而马克·吐温的小说则比较聪明地将这种观点编织到故事之中,因此可知马克·吐温关于奴隶制的抨击较为含蓄。

66. Recent criticism ofAdventures of Huckleberry Finnarose partly from its   .

A. target readers at the bottom

B. anti-slavery attitude

C. rather impolite language

D. frequent use of“nigger”

【解析】选D。细节理解题。从第三段倒数第二句More recently the book has been attacked because of the character Jim,...and many occurrences of the word nigger.可知这本书现在之所以受到抨击一是书中人物Jim,二是nigger单词频繁使用。

67. What best proves Twain’s anti-slavery stand according to the author?

A. Jim’s search for his family was described in detail.

B. The slave’s voice was first heard in American novels.

C. Jim grew up into a man and a father in the white culture.

D. Twain suspected that the slaves were less intelligent.

【解析】选C。推理判断题。根据文章第四段和第六段可知,马克·吐温反对奴隶制,他认为养育环境(nurture)而不是本性(nature)决定社会地位,因此Jim的故事——一个黑人孩子在白人家庭成长的故事很好地揭示出他的立场,因此答案为C。

68.The story of two babies switched mainly indicates that   .

A. slaves were forced to give up their babies to their masters

B. slaves’babies could pick up slave-holders’way of speaking

C. blacks’social position was shaped by how they were brought up

D. blacks were born with certain features of prejudice

【解析】选C。推理判断题。根据文章第四段和第六段内容可知,Jim原本是个黑人的孩子,后被调换到白人家庭成长的故事标志养育环境(nurture)而不是本性(nature)决定社会地位。因此可以推断:Jim的故事表明黑人的社会地位是由生长环境造成的。

69.What does the underlined word“they”in Paragraph 7 refer to?

A.The attacks. B. Slavery and prejudice.

C. White men. D.The shows.

【解析】选D。词义猜测题。此处they指代前句中的复数名词“shows”。

70. What does the author mainly argue for?

A. Twain had done more than his contemporary writers to attack racism.

B. Twain was an admirable figure comparable to Abraham Lincoln.

C. Twain’s works had been banned on unreasonable grounds.

D. Twain’s works should be read from a historical point of view.

【解析】选A。观点态度题。从整篇文章可知,作者认为马克·吐温在反对种族歧视方面做出了卓越贡献。



(2013·陕西卷·A)

A

Joshua, Helmut, and Bethlehem

Michelle O.Donovan

ISBN 9781462058679

Life is not easy for nine-year-old Joshua during World WarⅡ.



Because of his family’s Jewish background, they are sent to live in the concentration camps(集中营).Scared and alone, Joshua one day makes friends with a little mouse he calls Bethlehem who becomes his closest friend.

Encourage Me!

Inspirational Poetry

Gloria Coykendall

ISBN 9781412027854

It is an easy-to-read collection of poems originally written to encourage in faith and to be a cure for chronic depression(长期抑郁)...cure to strengthen identity and purpose.



Seeking the Edge

Dr.Joseph L.Rose



ISBN 9781462031795

Seeking the Edge provides the tools and techniques to find that edge in one’s life—driving readers to achieve success whether in your current job, finding a new job, in education, family, or even hobbies.
More Things in Heaven

Bill Bosworth

ISBN 9780595433582

In his More Things in Heaven, Bill Bosworth presents the highlights of his 83 years of life, including his trips to India and the study of the writings of several great spiritual leaders.



More Things in Heaven will appeal to anyone who insists on finding the deepest meaning for their existence based on their own experiences.

Creation or Evolution

Michael Ebifegha

ISBN 9781450289023

Were humans created, or did they evolve? How old is the Earth? The debate between science and religion continues to be heated.In Creation or Evolution, Michael Ebifegha examines these two opposed world views within the structure of empirical(实证的)science.

【文章大意】本篇文章对5本书进行了简单的介绍,比如作者、图书编号、主要内容等。

46.Who wrote the story about a little boy and a little mouse?

A.Bill Bosworth.

B.Michelle O.Donovan.

C.Dr.Joseph L.Rose.

D.Gloria Coykendall.

【解析】选B。细节理解题。第一本书描述了一个小男孩和一只小老鼠的故事,故选B。

47.The ISBN for the book of poems is    .

A.9781462031795 B.9781412027854

C.9780595433582 D.9781462058679

【解析】选B。细节理解题。第二本书的介绍中提到“它是一本诗集”,因此它的图书编号就是B项。

48. What kind of readers will probably like reading More Things in Heaven?

A. Those who are searching for the meaning of life.

B. Those who are trying to be spiritual leaders.

C. Those who study the art of writing.

D. Those who like traveling abroad.

【解析】选A。推理判断题。第四本书的介绍中提到“这本书对于那些坚持找到自身经历存在的最深刻意义的读者有吸引力”,故选A。

49. Which of the following books explores the origin of humans?

A. Seeking the Edge.

B. Creation or Evolution.

C. Joshua, Helmut, and Bethlehem.

D. More Things in Heaven.

【解析】选B。推理判断题。第五本书的介绍中提到了这样几个问题“人类是被创造出来的还是进化而来的?”“地球存在多少年了?”,通过这些问题我们可知答案为B。

(2013·湖北卷·B)

Mothers and daughters go through so much—yet when was the last time a mother and daughter sat down to write a book together about it all? Perri Klass and her mother, Sheila Solomon Klass, both gifted professional writers, prove to be ideal co-writers as they examine their decades of motherhood, daughterhood, and the wonderful ways their lives have overlapped(重叠).

Perri notes with amazement how closely her own life has mirrored her mother’s: both have full-time careers; both have published books, articles, and stories; each has three children; they both love to read. They also love to travel—in fact, they often take trips together. But in truth, the harder they look at their lives, the more they acknowledge their big differences in circumstance and basic nature.

A child of the Depression(大萧条), Sheila was raised in Brooklyn by parents who considered education a luxury for girls. Starting with her college education, she has fought for everything she’s ever accomplished. Perri, on the other hand, grew up privileged in the New Jersey suburbs of the 1960s and 1970s. For Sheila, wasting time or money is a crime, and luxury is unthinkable while Perri enjoys the occasional small luxury, but has not been successful at trying to persuade her mother into enjoying even the tiniest thing she likes.

Each writing in her own unmistakable voice, Perri and Sheila take turns exploring the joys and pains, the love and bitterness, the minor troubles and lasting respect that have always bonded them together. Sheila describes the adventure of giving birth to Perri in a tiny town in Trinidad where her husband was doing research fieldwork.Perri admits that she can’t sort out all the mess in the households,even though she knows it drives her mother crazy. Together they compare thoughts on bringing up children and working, admit long-hidden sorrows, and enjoy precious memories.

Looking deep into the lives they have lived separately and together, Perri and Sheila tell their mother-daughter story with honesty, humor, enthusiasm, and admiration for each other. A written account in two voices, Every Mother Is a Daughter is a duet(二重奏)that produces a deep, strong sound with the experiences that all mothers and daughters will recognize.

【文章大意】Sheila和Perri母女俩合作写了一本书Every Mother Is a Daughter,在书中二人以各自的风格真实、幽默、满怀热情地描述了母女之间的快乐、痛苦以及彼此之间的爱。这样一本书使所有的母亲和女儿对共有的经历产生了深深的、强有力的共鸣。

55.Why does Perri think that her own life has mirrored her mother’s?

A.They both have gone through difficult times.

B.They have strong emotional ties with each other.

C.They have the same joys and pains, and love and bitterness.

D.They both have experiences as daughter, mother and writer.

【解析】选D。推理判断题。从第二段不难看出Perri和她的妈妈有很多相似之处:both have full-time careers;both have published books, articles, and stories; each has three children; they both love to read. They also love to travel可推知正是由于这么多的共同点,所以Perri才会认为她的生活是反映她妈妈的生活的一面镜子。

56.The word“luxury”in Paragraph 3 means   .

A.something rare but not pleasant

B.something that cannot be imagined

C.something expensive but not necessary

D.something that can only be enjoyed by boys

【解析】选C。词义猜测题。生活在经济的大萧条时期,家庭条件不会太好,所以Sheila的父母认为女孩子受教育是非常奢侈的,少有的,不应该做的事情。故选C项。

57. What is Paragraph 4 mainly about?

A. The content of the book.

B. The purpose of the book.

C. The influence of the book.

D. The writing style of the book.

【解析】选A。段落大意题。本段主要讲述了书中母女俩各写了什么样的内容,故选A项。

58.How are women’s lives explored in this book?

A. In a musical form.

B. Through field research.

C. With unique writing skills.

D. From different points of view.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。结合第四段中的第一句中的Each writing in her own unmistakable voice和最后一段中的in two voices,就可推知母女俩在书中以各自不同的角度来演绎同一个主题,故选D项。

(2013·福建卷·D)

Pride and Prejudice for the Modern Woman

Let us imagine howPride and Prejudice, Jane Austen’s most famous work, might be updated, 200 years on.

Austen’s popularity is rooted in her intelligence. But today she would certainly have had a very different life, as would her characters. Here’s my own suggestion...

It is a truth finally and universally acknowledged that a single woman with brains deserves to have equal opportunities to men, however disadvantaged she may feel by sexism.

“My dear husband,”said his hopeful wife one day,“have you heard that the local store,standing empty for so long,is taken over by a bright young businesswoman?”

Her dull and indifferent(漠不关心的)husband replied that he had not.

“But it is,it is,”she replied excitedly.

Mr Dull-Husband made no reply.

“Don’t you want to know her plans?”she cried with some impatience.

“Well, clearly you think it matters to your silly little head...so I’d better listen.”

“Well, my dear, the rumour(传言)is that she has already set up a string of successful businesses in northern England, though how a woman can know anything about that is beyond me. She will move in herself next month.”

“What is her name?”

“Bingley.”

“Is she married or single?”

“What a question! And none of your business. But her coming will be a fine thing for our five boys.”

“How so? How can it possibly affect them?”

“My dear love: those lazy boys need something to wake them up. There are bound to be jobs going.”

“Is that her point in settling here? Surely as a woman she has simply taken a fancy to the place.”

“Nonsense, my love, how little you’ve noticed the world has changed. She’s got a first-rate degree and some sort of business qualification, I’m told.She surely needs one of our boys! Perhaps you might give her a call.”

“Me? No. Perhaps you can take an interest.You still have your looks,after all.She may even offer you a job.”

“Oh, that’s not likely. These new chances belong to the younger generation. But now you mention it, I think I’ll go along all the same.”

And Mrs Bennet went along. That was 10 years ago. She is now managing director of a FTSE-listed company.

...It would remain the case, of course, that Mrs Bennet would be one of very few women on the company board, that her salary would be lower than her male colleagues, her bonus of a more“female”dimension and her lifespan(年限)among the city’s business leaders shorter than theirs. Still, she’d no doubt have enjoyed Davos—and might even have hobnobbed(攀谈)with influential figures.

【文章大意】文章对《傲慢与偏见》这本书进行评论并延伸到现在,当今世界仍然存在性别歧视。

67. Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage?

A. Austen was born 200 years ago.

B. Austen rewrote Pride and Prejudice.

C. Austen’s success lies in her wisdom.

D. Austen’s updated work gains popularity.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第二段“Austen’s popularity is rooted in her intelligence.”可知答案选C。根据“might be updated”可知,只是想象,奥斯汀没有重写,其作品也没有更新,排除B、D项;“200 years on”说的是作品,不是作者,故排除A。

68.The underlined part in the passage suggests that Mrs Bennet    .

A.had mixed feelings of admiration and surprise about Bingley

B.felt kind of worried and doubtful about Bingley

C.was extremely anxious to meet Bingley

D.had a great curiosity about Bingley

【解析】选A。句意猜测题。根据画线前一句“the rumour is that she has already set up a string of successful businesses in northern England...”可知,Mrs Bennet对Bingley是感到羡慕和惊讶的,故答案选A。

69.In the eyes of Mrs Bennet, Bingley surely needed one of their boys to    .

A.get married to B.work for her

C.help her move in D.take over her store

【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据“There are bound to be jobs going.”以及“...She may even offer you a job.”可知,Mrs Bennet谈论的是工作,故答案选B。

70. What does the writer intend to tell us?

A. Women with brains can also be as successful as men.

B. Women have to pay a high price for success.

C. A judgment must be made free from prejudice.

D. Sex discrimination still exists nowadays.

【解析】选D。目的意图题。通过最后一段可知,作者认为这种偏见会仍然存在,因此性别歧视会依然存在,故答案选D。

(2013·安徽卷·A)

The Healthy Habits Survey(调查)shows that only about one third of American seniors have correct habits.Here are some findings and expert advice.

1.How many times did you brush your teeth yesterday?

●Finding:A full 33% of seniors brush their teeth only once a day.

●Step:Remove the 300 types of bacteria in your mouth each morning with a battery-operated toothbrush.Brush gently for 2 minutes,at least twice a day.

2.How many times did you wash your hands or bathe yesterday?

●Finding:Seniors,on average,bathe fewer than 3 days a week.And nearly 30% wash their hands only 4 times a day—half of the number doctors recommend.

●Step:We touch our faces around 3,000 times a day—often inviting germs(病菌)to enter our mouth,nose,and eyes.Use toilet paper to avoid touching the door handle.And,most important,wash your hands often with hot running water and soap for 20 seconds.

3.How often do you think about fighting germs?

●Finding:Seniors are not fighting germs as well as they should.

●Step:Be aware of germs.Do you know it is not your toilet but your kitchen sponge(海绵)that can carry more germs than anything else?To kill these germs,keep your sponge in the microwave for 10 seconds.

【文章大意】本文主要介绍了健康习惯调查的一些关于刷牙、洗手和与细菌作斗争的发现及专家的建议。

56.What is found out about American seniors?

A.Most of them have good habits.

B.Nearly 30% of them bathe three days a week.

C.All of them are fighting germs better than expected.

D.About one third of them brush their teeth only once a day.

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第一个问题的发现A full 33% of seniors brush their teeth only once a day.可知D项表述是正确的。本文第一段说健康习惯调查表明仅仅大约三分之一的美国年长者有正确的习惯,故A项表述有误;根据第三个问题的发现可知C项表述有误。

57.Doctors suggest that people should wash their hands    .

A.twice a day B.three times a day

C.four times a day D.eight times a day

【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第二个问题的发现And nearly 30% wash their hands only 4 times a day—half of the number doctors recommend.可知本题答案为D。

58.Which of the following is true according to the text?

A.We should keep from touching our faces.

B.There are less than 300 types of bacteria in the mouth.

C.A kitchen sponge can carry more germs than a toilet.

D.We should wash our hands before touching a door handle.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第三个问题后Step中的Do you know it is not your toilet but your kitchen sponge that can carry more germs than anything else?可知C项表述是正确的。

59.The text probably comes from    .

A.a guide book B.a popular magazine

C.a book review D.an official document

【解析】选B。主旨大意题。本文主要介绍了健康习惯调查的一些发现及专家的建议,故可能出自一本受欢迎的(健康)杂志。A项是旅游指南,C项是书评,D项是官方文件。

(2013·安徽卷·E)

Argentina in the late nineteenth century was an exciting place.Around 1870, it was experiencing an economic(经济的)boom,and the capital, Buenos Aires, attracted many people.Farmers, as well as a flood of foreigners from Spain and Italy, came to Buenos Aires seeking jobs. These jobs didn’t pay well, and the people felt lonely and disappointed with their new life in the city. As the unhappy newcomers mixed together in the poor parts of the city, the dance known as the tango(探戈舞)came into being.

At the beginning the tango was a dance of the lower classes. It was danced in the bars and streets. At that time there were many fewer women than men, so if a man didn’t want to be left out, his only choice was to dance with another man so that he could attract the attention of the few available women. Gradually, the dance spread into the upper classes of Argentinean society and became more respectable.

In Europe at this time, strong interest in dance from around the world was beginning. This interest in international dance was especially evident in Paris. Every kind of dance from ballet(芭蕾舞)to belly dancing could be found on the stages of the Paris theaters. After tango dances from Argentina arrived in Europe, they began to draw the interest of the public as they performed their exciting dance in cafes. Though not everyone approved of the new dance, saying it was a little too shocking, the dance did find enough supporters to make it popular.

The popularity(流行)of the tango continued to grow in many other parts of the world. Soldiers who returned to the United States from World War I brought the tango to North America.It reached Japan in 1926, and in 2003 the Argentinean embassy in Seoul hired a local tango dancer to act as a kind of dance ambassador, and promote tango dancing throughout South Korea.

【文章大意】探戈舞是由一群在阿根廷首都布宜诺斯艾利斯寻找工作的人创造的,随后这种舞蹈从下层社会传到了上层社会并在第一次世界大战之后传到了世界其他地方,备受人们的关注。

72.The origin of the tango is associated with    .

A.belly dancers B.American soldiers

C.a Spanish city D.the capital of Argentina

【解析】选D。细节理解题。由第一段可知大约1870年阿根廷的首都布宜诺斯艾利斯经济繁荣,许多人都去那里寻找工作,但是工作的报酬并不高,人们感到孤独、对新生活感到失望,当这些不幸的人聚在一起的时候,探戈舞就诞生了。因此探戈舞的起源应该是与阿根廷的首都布宜诺斯有关的,故选D。

73.Which of the following is true about the tango?

A.It was created by foreigners from Spain and Italy.

B.People of the upper classes loved the tango most.

C.It was often danced by two males in the beginning.

D.A dancer in Seoul became the Argentinean ambassador.

【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据第二段的第三句At that time there were many fewer women than men,so if a man didn’t want to be left out,his only choice was to dance with another man so that he could attract the attention of the few available women.可知起初探戈舞经常是两个男性一起跳的,故C项表述正确。

74.Before World War I,the tango spread to    .

A.America B.Japan

C.France D.South Korea

【解析】选C。推理判断题。根据最后一段可知第一次世界大战之后探戈舞传到了北美、日本和韩国,故用排除法可知本题选C。

75.What can be the best title for the text?

A.How to Dance the Tango

B.The History of the Tango

C.How to Promote the Tango

D.The Modern Tango Boom



【解析】选B。主旨大意题。本文主要讲述了探戈舞的形成及其历史发展,故最佳题目应是B。

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