. Discuss how we use psychological representations to identify objects



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Sensation and Perception

September 5th - 10th

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  1. Define key terms




  1. Describe the relationship between the physical world and its psychological representation (i.e., sensation).




  1. Discuss how we use psychological representations to identify objects (i.e., perception).

    1. template theory

    2. feature theory

    3. prototype theory

    4. Gestalt psychology




  1. Distinguish between top-down and bottom-up processing.




  1. Outline Gibson's 'Direct Perception' approach.

Sensation and Perception

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Sensation – receiving physical stimulation and translating

Perception – interpreting and recognizing


Key Questions:

      1. How do we encode information?

        • How is a physical object in the world

turned into a psychological object


in our mind/brain?


      1. What is the nature of the



      1. How do we use this information

Distal vs. Proximal Stimuli

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Sense

Distal Stimulus

Proximal Stimulus

Our Perception

Vision

Varying Pattern of reflected light







Audition

Varying pattern of air pressure







Taste

Melange of chemical compounds







Smell

Airborn chemical compounds







Touch

Stretching, indentation of skin








Important Questions:


  • Can you think of any other senses?

  • Does food have taste? Does light have color?

  • Perception vs. imagery

  • Source memory

How do we go from Proximal to Distal?

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In vision, Photoreceptors do the work

Retina: a movie screen in the back of your eye.







Rods

Cones

How Many?

Population of U.S.

Population of NY

What do they react to?







When do they work best?







Where are they?

of the retina

of the retina

What are they specialized for?







Why the difference?

rods connected to same ganglion cell

rod per ganglion cell

How do they work?



Distribution of Rods and Cones

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Color vision

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Different types of cones


  • respond to different wavelengths of light.




Red light

=========>

Red cone activity

Blue light

=========>

Blue cone activity



Cones work in teams:

  • red-green

  • blue-yellow

Red light


=========>


Red cone activity

Green cone activity


Evidence:

Color fading and After-Images: why so uncommon?

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Your eyes don’t just sit there!!!


  • integrates information

  • ballistic movements


Why do our eyes move?

  • Nervous system is keyed to detect

Evidence that system is keyed to changes



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Evidence of enhancing boundaries: Lateral Inhibition



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More evidence that perception enhances boundaries

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Change / Repetition Blindness

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  • Repetition blindness

  • Change blindness

    • moviemistakes.com

Simons & Levin (1998)

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