The study of science and technology policy has been dominated by two approaches. The first treats science as a tool for policy, as summed up by the notion of “science speaking truth to power.” The second focuses on policy designed to shape the organization and conduct of science. This approach has historically looked at government R&D policy. Both approaches have been dominated by realist or ideology-based modes of analysis that understand science and policy as separate spheres, which are brought together and variously corrupted or edified by the encounter. In this course, we will explore approaches to science, technology and politics that avoid sphere-based or linear models. Borrowing from recent work in Science and Technology Studies, we will treat science, technology, political, and international order more broadly as co-productive of each other. Last but not least, we will focus these issues on East Asian countries.
This course attempts to draw a broad map that reveals some critical relations between science and technology and national development in East Asian countries including Taiwan, China, Japan and South Korea after the World War Two. It should help students equip some more advanced knowledge in theories and specific cases. Moreover, this course will encourage students to develop and explore their research questions about these issues.
三、每週進度及教學內容簡述 (subject to change; likely to arrange two topic talks in the class):
Week 1 Introduction to Science, Technology and the State: Focusing on East Asia.
Week 2-3 Science, Technology and Colonialism
2.1 Alvares, Claude (1988). “Science, Colonialism, and Violence: A Luddite View.” In Science, Hegemony, and Violence: A Requiem for Modernity, Ashis Nandy ed. NY: Oxford University Press. Pp. 68-112.
2.2 Adas, Michael (1989). Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Ch. 3.
3.1 Lo, Ming-Cheng M. (2002). Doctors within Borders: Profession, Ethnicity, and Modernity in Colonial Taiwan. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Ch. 1, 7.
3.2 Akubue, Anthony (2000). “Appropriate Technology for Socioeconomic Development in Third World Countries.” Journal of Technology Studies 26: 33-43.
Foucault, Michel, 1970. The Order of Things: An Archeology of the Human Sciences. NY: Random House.
Marcuse, Herbert, 1964. One-dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society. MA: Beacon Press.
Winner, Langdon, 1977. Autonomous Technology: Technics-out-of-Control as a Theme in Political Thought. MA: MIT Press.
Yao, Jen-to (2006). “The Japanese Colonial State and Its form of Knowledge in Taiwan.” In Taiwan under Japanese Colonial Rule, 1845~1945: History, Culture, Memory, edited by Liao Ping-Hui and David Der-Wei Wang, 37~61. NY: Columbia University Press.
Week 4-5 Technology Industry and East Asian Economic Development
4.1 Oniz, Ziya (1991). “The Logic of the Development State.” Comparative Politics 24 (1): 109-126.
4.2 Evans, Peter (1995). Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation. NJ: Princeton University. Ch. 1 (pp. 3-20) & 3 (pp. 43-73).
5.1 Nakayama, Shigeru (2012). “Techno-nationalism Versus Techno-globalism.” East Asian Science, Technology and Society 6 (1): 9-15.
5.2 Hsieh, Michelle F. (2011), “Similar Opportunities, Different Responses: Explaining Divergent Patterns of Development between Taiwan and South Korea”, International Sociology 26(3): 364-391.
Amsden, Alice H. and Wan-wen Chu. Beyond Late Development: Taiwan's Upgrading Policies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.
Chen, Liang-Chih (2011),“Technological learning in the process of technological capability building in low and medium technology industries in newly industrializing countries: Selected examples from Taiwan,” in P.L. Robertson and D. Jacobson (Eds.) Knowledge Transfer And Technology Diffusion, Edward Elgar publisher.
Chien, Shiuh-Shen, T. P. Yang and Y. C. Wu (2010). “Taiwan’s Foreign Aid and Technical Assistance in the Marshall Islands.” Asian Survey 50 (6): 1184- 1204.
Greene, J. Megan (2008). The Origins of the Developmental State in Taiwan: Science Policy and the Quest for Modernization. MA: Harvard University Press. Ch. 1.
Lin, Justin Yifu. (2012). New Structural Economics: a Framework for Rethinking Development and Policy. Washington D.C: The World Bank. Ch.: TBA.
Weiss, L. and J. Mathews (1994), “Innovation Alliances in Taiwan: A Coordinated Approach to Developing and Diffusing Technology,” Journal of Industry Studies, vol.1:2, pp. 91-101.
Wu, Yongping (2005), A Political Explanation of Economic Growth: State Survival, Bureaucratic Politics, and Private Enterprises in the Making of Taiwan's Economy, 1950-1985. MA: Harvard University Press. (Selected chapters, TBA)
Week 6-7 Science and the State: Exploring Classic Models (Also see Alt. Week 2)
6.1 Block, Fred (2011). “Innovation and the Invisible Hand of Government.” In State of Innovation: the US Government’s Role in Technology Development, Fred Block and Matthew R. Keller eds. CO: Paradigm. Pp. 1-26.
6.2 Appelbaum, Richard P. et al. (2011). “China’s (Not So Hidden) Developmental Stat: Becoming a Leading Nanotechnology Innovator in the Twenty-First Century.” In State of Innovation: the US Government’s Role in Technology Development, Fred Block and Matthew R. Keller eds. CO: Paradigm. Pp. 217-235.
7.1 Stoke, Donald E. (1997). Pasteur's Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. Ch. TBA
7.2 Price, Don (1965). The Scientific Estate. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Ch 1, 5.
Dennis, Michael. "Bushwacked! The Problem of Vannevar Bush and the History of US Science Policy." In States of Knowledge: Science, Power, and Political Culture, Ed. Sheila Jasanoff.
Dupree, A. Hunter. "Science Policy in the United States: The Legacy of John Quincy Adams." Minerva 28 (1990): 259-271.
Bush, Vannevar. Science: The Endless Frontier. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1945.
Kevles, Daniel J. “The National Science Foundation and the Debate over Postwar Research Policy, 1942-1945”. Isis 68 (1977): 5-26.
Kleinman, Daniel Lee. Politics on the Endless Frontier: Postwar Research Policy in the United States. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995.
Nishiyama, Takashi (2003). “Cross-Disciplinary Technology Transfer in Trans-World War II Japan: The Japanese High-Speed Bullet Train as a Case Study.” Contemporary Technology Transfer and Society 1: 305-327.
Price, Derek de Solla. Big Science, Little Science. New York: Columbia University press, 1963.
Week 8 Science and the State (1): Rethinking Classic Models on Development
8.1 Liu, Shao-hua (2011). Passage to Manhood: Youth Migration, Heroin, and AIDS in Southwest China. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Ch.: TBA.
8.2 Escobar, Arturo (1995). Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Ch. 2.
Liu, Shao-hua (2011). “A Precarious Rite of Passage in Postreform China: Heroin Use among Nuosu Youths on the Move.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 25 (3): 395-411.
Sen, Amartya (1999). Development as Freedom. NY: Knopf. Ch. Intro.
Simon, Thomas W. and A. Emerson Wiens (1993). “Narratives of Technology Transfer.” Bulletin of Science, Technology, and Society 13 (2): 63-66.
Week 9 No Class.
Week 10 Science and the State (2): Rethinking Classic Models on Agriculture
10.1 Lo, Kuei-Mei and Hsing-Hsin Chen (2011). “Technological Momentum and the Hegemony of the Green Revolution: A Case Study of an Organic Rice Cooperative in Taiwan.” East Asian Science, Technology and Society 5: 135-172.
10.2 Scott, James C. (1998). Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. CT: Yale University Press. Ch. 8.
Escobar, Arturo. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Ferguson, James (1985). “The Bovine Mystique: Power, Poverty and Livestock in Rural Lesotho.” Man 20 (4): 647-674.
Ferguson, James. The Anti-Politics Machine: 'Development', Depoliticization, and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.
Week 11 Science, Technology and Identity Politics
Dong-Won Kim and Stuart W. Leslie (1999). “Winning Markets or Winning Nobel Prizes? KAIST and the Challenges of Late Industrialization.” Osiris 13: 154-185.
Na, Hang Ryeol (2012). “Nationalism as a Factor for an International Environmental Regime: Korea and the East Asian Biosphere Reserve Network (EABRN).” East Asian Science, Technology and Society 6 (1): 83-100.
Hecht, Gabrielle. “Technology, Politics, and National Identity in France.” In Technology of Power: Essays in Honor of Thomas Parke Hughes and Agatha Chipley Hughes, edited by Michael Thad Allen and Gabrielle Hecht, 253-294. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.
Hecht, Gabrielle (1998). The Radiance of France: Nuclear Power and National Identity after World War II. MA: MIT Press.
Moon, Suzanne (2007). “Justice, Geography, and Steel: Technology and National Identity in Indonesian Industrialization.” Osiris 24: 253-277.
Week 12 Policymakers and Experts
Jasanoff, Sheila. The Fifth Branch: Science Advisers as Policymakers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990. Ch 1-3.
Kuo, Wen-Hua. “The Voice on the Bridge: Taiwan’s Regulatory Engagement with Global Pharmaceuticals.” East Asian Science, Technology and Society 3 (2009): 51-72.
Epstein, Steven. "The Construction of Lay Expertise: AIDS Activism and the Forging of Credibility in the Reform of Clinical Trials." Science, Technology, & Human Values 20.4 (1995): 408-437.
Wynne, Brian. "Misunderstood Misunderstanding: Social Identities and Public Uptake of Science." Public Understanding of Science 1.3 (1992): 281-304.
14.1 Albright, David and Corey Gay (1998). Taiwan: Nuclear Nightmare Averted. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 54 (1): 54-60.
14.2 Jasanoff, Shiela and Sang-Hyun Kim (2009). “Containing the Atom: Sociotechnical Imaginaries and Nuclear Power in the United States and South Korea.” Minerva 47: 119-146.
14.3 Kuznick, Peter (2011). Japan’s Nuclear History in Perspective: Eisenhower and Atoms for War and Peace. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 13 April. http://www.thebulletin.org/web-edition/features/
15.1 Takubo, Masa (2011). Nuclear or Not? The Complex and Uncertain Politics of Japan’s Post-Fukushima Energy Policy. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 67(5): 19-26.
15.2 Perrow, Charles (2011). Fukushima and the Inevitability of Accidents. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 67(6): 44-52.
Hecht, Gabrielle (2006). Negotiating Global Nuclearities: Apartheid, Decolonization, and the Cold War in the Making of the IAEA. In Global Power Knowledge: Science, Technology, and International Affairs, Osiris, 21, edited by John Krige and Kai-Henrik Barth, pp. 28-48.
DiMoia, John (2010). Atoms for Sale? Cold War Institution-Building and the South Korean Atomic Energy Project, 1945-1965. Technology and Culture 51: 589-618.
Edwards, Paul N. and Gabrielle Hecht (2010). “History and the Technopolitics of Identity: The Case of Apartheid South Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 36 (3): 619-639.
Hecht, Gabrielle (2002). Rupture-Talk in the Nuclear Age: Conjugating Colonial Power in Africa. Social Studies of Science 32 (5/6): 691-727.
Perrow, Charles (1999). Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies. NJ: Prince University Press.
Schneider, Mycle, Antony Froggatt and Steve Thomas (2011). 2010-2011 World Nuclear Industry Status Report. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 67(4): 60-77.
Gottweis, Herbert. Governing Molecules: The Discursive Politics of Genetic Engineering in Europe and the United States (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998).
Jasanoff, Sheila. The Fifth Branch: Science Advisers as Policymakers (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994).
Jasanoff, Sheila. Science at the Bar: Law, Science, and Technology in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995).
Ulrich Beck, Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (London: Sage Publications, 1992).
Yaron Ezrahi, The Descent of Icarus: Science and the Transformation of Contemporary Democracy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990).
- Active class participation, including consistent attendance, completing readings in sufficient time to reflect on the week’s topics, speaking during class, and engaging the ideas of other students and the instructor. Active participation includes occasional responses to other’s reviews. (30%)
- Four 1-2 page reviews of recommended or related reading. Provide a short, critical review of one article or book (1-2 chapters) that we did not discuss in class, but has direct relevance for the week’s material. Due one week after the topic is discussed. (20%)
- Lead one week’s discussion. This is NOT a presentation. Instead, you should endeavor to spur conversation and participation with appropriate challenges, questions, or activities. (10%)
- 1 final research paper. This paper should engage with the ideas and material discussed in class. Drafts of your final paper will be shared among and critiqued by your peer group. (40%)
-- “Technological Construction as Identity Formation: Constructing Taiwan’s High Speed Rail during the 1990s State Transformation”, under review (SCI/SSCI).